Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/34662
標題: A study of geomorphic evolution and characteristics of landslides in watersheds
集水區地形演化與崩塌特性之研究
作者: Lin, Chia-Rung
林家榮
關鍵字: Geomorphic Evolution
地形演化
Geomorphic-Geological Homogenous Area
Potentail Landslide Area
地形地質均質區
崩塌潛勢區
出版社: 水土保持學系所
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摘要: Taiwan is locatied between tectonic plates, therefore geological structure is vulnerable. Besides, mountainous terrain and hazards of sediment disasters and floods occur frequently during the rainy season. It is an important task on water resources management and sediment control from land conservation viewpoint based on the watershed scale. Therefore, the principle of terrain evolution was applied to analyze landslide characteristics with multiple scales in this study. Results can be provided to the department of management and operation. This study contains four parts: (1) Appling hypsometric curve to analyze terrain remnant in watersheds from the frame of macro-scale geomorphic evolution; (2) Classifying geomorphic-geological homogenous area; (3) Analyzing the relation of landslide triggering factors from external force and human activities; (4) Combining results to explain potential landslides in the watersheds. Result shows that the hypsometric integral curve(HI index)is affected by geological rock strength. HI index is relatively higher when the geological rock strength is stronger. However, terrain remnant derived from the relief(HI*H index)cab be applied to watersheds comparison. The determining factors of geomorphic-geological homogenous areas are deviation from mean elevation, slope gradient, density of gully, these may be used in distinguishing the terrain characteristics. Homogeneous areas are classified by depression, steep slope, mountain ridge/spur and valley. Factors of frequency storm, distribution of river and road are different effect in watersheds. Result shows that distribution of river and road are obvious effect in watershed of Shemen reservoir and Shih-Kang Dam. Basically, effects of terrain weak on landslides are unobvious. The landslides considering factors of terrain, geology, rainfall, distribution of river and road may have the reasonable analyzed results. Terrain remnant is the major reason of landslides. The high landslide potential area can be determined by the influence of geological fault, storm and weak point in terrain. Shih-Kang Dam watershed confirms with the foregoing statement in this study. Watersheds of Shemen reservoir, Zengwun Reservoir and Sou-Fong River is unobvious, therefore, landslide potential is unobvious. The area with high density of roads and river concave banks belongs partial terrain weakness for the fragmentary landslides. Results show that multiple scales can explain landslide better than only one analysis scale. The materials of DEM, geological map, distribution of river cave bank and road density et al. are easy to obtain. The frame of this study based on the principle of terrain evolution is different with potential landslide area concluded from landslide studies in the past. Therefore, this study could generally apply to everywhere about watershed management.
台灣位處板塊交界帶屬地質年代甚為年輕的地區,由於地質構造複雜且破碎,加上高山地形及水文等特性,使得台灣的地形演化(沖蝕)極為活躍,而每年雨季集水區土砂災害頻傳。如何以集水區單元經營管理水資源及泥砂問題為國土保安首要工作;因此,本研究依據地形演化原理配合地形指標,由不同尺度分析地形演化與崩塌特性之關聯性,供相關單位經營管理之用。本研究共分四個部分:(1)利用面積高度積分曲線量化集水區殘土量,由大尺度觀點瞭解地形演化;(2)由地形地質均質區進行集水區地形分類;(3)分析誘發崩塌的外力,包含不同暴雨頻率特性、水系凹岸及道路闢築對崩塌之影響;(4)最後綜合上述之分析結果以判釋集水區崩塌潛勢之區位。 研究結果顯示面積高度積分(Hypsometric integral,HI)受地層的強弱影響,地層強度高者HI相對較高;而考慮起伏量的單位殘土量(HI*H)則能用於集水區比較。有關判釋地形地質均值區之各地形因子,以距平均高程離差、坡度及水系密度較具區別力,可用於區別地形特性。而各均值區可大致分為低窪行水區、陡坡區、嶺線區及溪谷區。各集水區暴雨、水系及道路對崩塌之影響並不相同,結果顯示水系及道路影響較大集水區為石門水庫及石岡壩集水區。整體而言,地形弱區對崩塌趨勢並非特別明顯,顯示崩塌分析仍需綜合地形、地質、雨量、水系及道路等因素,才能有較合理之判釋。 地形殘土量為影響集水區崩塌之主因,若配合地質構造及暴雨高之區位與地形弱區,則可判釋為高崩塌潛勢區。研究案例中僅石岡壩集水區具備上述條件;石門水庫、曾文水庫與壽豐溪等集水區僅具備其中兩項因子,因此崩塌潛勢未如石岡壩集水區明顯。另道路與水系凹岸密度高之區位因屬局部地形弱區,因此容易發生小規模零星崩塌。研究顯示並無單一分析尺度及單元可通用於自然界之崩塌潛勢分析;由地形演化原理配合各種指標,量化不同尺度的地形特性方可獲得較佳的結果。由於DEM、地質圖、水系分佈及雨量資料皆容易取得,用於集水區有別於傳統上以集水區崩塌現況反推崩塌潛勢區之研究。因此,本研究方法可應用於不同集水區之崩塌潛勢討論。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/34662
其他識別: U0005-1801200914080900
Appears in Collections:水土保持學系

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