Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/34902
標題: 木賊葉木麻黃森林草坪台灣大蟋蟀棲地成蟲地道演化之研究
Evolution of Adult Earth Tunnel in Forest Lawn formed from Casuarina equisetifolia L. for Formosan Giant Crickets
作者: 洪炳煌
Hong, Ping-Hwang
關鍵字: Formosan Giant Cricket
台灣大蟋蟀
Casuarina Aquisetifolia L. Windbreaks
the vertical and horizontal framework models
y mode model
seepage
soil erosion
木賊葉木麻黃防風林
水平擴充框架
垂直擴充框架
y模型,滲流
土壤沖蝕
出版社: 水土保持學系所
引用: 林俐玲、王永琦、蔡義誌,(2004)「地表處理對土壤飽和力傳導度之影響。」坡地防災學報3(1)29-38。 林俐玲、謝銘、林明義、杜怡德(2002)「九份二山崩塌地土壤水分特性之研究。」中華水土保持學報33(2)79-86。 梁昇、林明鼎,(2009a)「不同海岸防風林台灣大蟋蟀若蟲數量之比較」農林學報58(2)107-119。 梁昇、林明鼎,(2009b)「台灣大蟋蟀地道」未發表。 林信輝、呂金城、林昭遠,(1993)水土保持植物簡介〈禾草篇〉。行政院農委會、國立中興大學編印。 林信輝(2004)水土保持植生工程 廖學誠、黃正良、夏禹九,(2001)「福山及扇平森林集水區飽和土壤水力傳導度之比較。」師大地理研究報告,35:1-20。 楊正澤(1997)地棲蟋蟀及棲所保育。台灣省政府農林廳 蔡在壽、李明忠、林金盾、吳京一. 1994. 「實驗室內台灣大蟋蟀之生活史」 師大生物學報. 29(2):65-70。 劉貞妤,(2007)「應用粒線體16SrDNA基因和AFLP探討台灣地區大扁頭蟋蟀的遺傳分化及遷徙路徑」中興大學生命科學系所碩士論文。 Daniel Hillel原著,萬鑫森 譯(1987)基礎土壤物理學「質地、力徑分布與比表面積」59-72。 Baver, L. D., W. H. Gardner, and W. R. Gardner, (1972) ”Soil Physics” 4th Ed. John Wiley. Dohzhansky, T., (1973)”Nothing in Biology Make Sense except in the Light of Evolutation,” The American Biology Teacher 35:125-129. Holldobler, B., and E. O. Wilson (1994) Journey to the Ants, Arts & Licensing International, Inc. USA. Shih, H. T., , H. C. Hung, C. D. Schubart, C. A. Chen, and H. W. Chang, (2006) ”Tntraspecific Genetic Diversity of the endemic freshwater Crab Candidiopotamon Rathbunae (Decapoda, Brochyura, Potamidae) reflects Five Million Years of the Geological History of Taiwan,” J. Biogeography 33,980-989. Valentin, C. (1985)” Effects of Grazing and Trampling on Soil deterioration around recently drilled Water Holes in the Sahaetian Zone,” in Soil Erosion and Conservation, (edited by S. A. El-Swaify, W. C. Moldenhauer and Andrew Lo.) Soil Conservation Society of America. Yeh, W. B., Y. L. Chang, C.H. Lin, F. S. Wu and J. T. Yang, (2004)“ Genetic Differentiation of Loxoblemmus Appendicularies Complex (Orthotera; Gryllidae): Speciation through Vicariant and Glaciation Events,“ Annals of the Entomological society of America, 97(4)613-623.
摘要: The earth tunnels for adult Brachytrupes Portentosus are deeply created inside the ground. On the one hand, it offer as safe living spaces or feces treatment zones. It also served as egg laying and lavae breeding, on the other hand., at least for the period of the continuing four months (from June to September). All adults are died out after white dew festival(白露), while new born lavae climb up to soil surface to build their own tunnels. It is coincidently the season of the east Asian rainy season(梅雨季) coming firstly and the typhoon rains coming immediately afterward. Those functions of the tunnels are, therefore, dramestically changed and essentially critical to ecology and soil erosion problems. How the crickets overcome or escape from these impacts. The mode of cricket’s tunnel shape was obtained by pouring the liquidized cement into the earth tunnel, and waited until dried out. The tunnel looked like” Y” in the nymphs period. The two upper ends of Y mode ranged from 20 to 40 cm. The mode changed into a complex structure in mature period.. The new tunnel models followed a vertical framework used to create for the purpose to produce new generation after matching. A soil dome over the through hole which piled around soil particles in nymphal or mature period. The total length of the earth tunnel might be over 1.5 meter. The tunnel was used only for about one month, then gave up forever. Biodiversity was benefited due to the abandoned tunnels became homes of other microorganisms in the soils. The soils from dome in the upper part of soil tunnel will mix up if rains come during the young stage of nymphs while drain firmly during near-mature or mature stages. The infiltration test for connection of the tunnel shows a final stable infiltration rate, after 2 hours escape time, tunnel seems like a maceopore, and lead to a conclusion that seepage is not at all directly or indirectly formed and no soil ruin occurs, thus, no erosion potential is expected and it is stable even after a long rain during cricket in mature stage.. The important reason of transfer action in nymph period is due to uncomfortable and dirty,while adult male is never change. The tunnel again. The evolution of earth tunnel sighificently occurred in diameter enlargement one reason is water dissipation,an additionl reason perhapes the construction action for a femal adult after matching. The variation of diameter curve is proposed in the shape to account these influences.
木賊葉木麻黃森林草坪為重要台灣大蟋蟀棲地,森林草坪(forest lawn)一般意指墓園,但本文係指有林木的草地。台灣大蟋蟀成蟲身長約4.5公分,深入土中建構的地道,一方面提供棲身安全、儲糧、進食、活動、交配、 排洩之處理,二方面兼作為儲蛋與孵育場所。由於成蟲在每一年白露節氣即會死亡。而台灣大蟋蟀若蟲幼蟲絕大部分在白露節氣後才會陸續出土,此時氣候上,先有梅雨後有颱風雨,短期內地道功能任務繁瑣,變化巨大懸殊,種族繁衍又如何以賴? 本研究首先取得木賊葉木麻黃森林草坪棲地內台灣大蟋蟀成蟲地道形狀,方法是採用水泥和水,以重力方式灌入地道中,俟水分脫乾後挖取水泥模型。在若蟲期,模型有如「y」。且Y字二頭相距以20cm為主,至40cm。成蟲期配對時,這種基本造型,在雌蟲進入雄蟲洞中後,有革命性變化。雌蟲依垂直擴充框架挖出另一地道,準備生產;地道深入地下可超過1.5m。本文根據現場資料模擬出典型結構進行滲透測定,成蟲期地道通水2小時餘後依然安穩,而有一穩定終滲透率;依其功能尚可歸入為土壤粗孔隙。是以本研究做成台灣大蟋蟀成蟲地道不會間接或直接形成滲流的結論;不僅如此,也不會引發土壤沖蝕或其他可能結構崩潰災害。 若蟲期,當地道因處理排洩物而失去部分空間後,如已造成地道環境不佳,台灣大蟋蟀會抛棄該舊地道而另築新地道;但成蟲期台灣大蟋蟀除非是母蟲,否則即不再遷移,一但決定藏身地道中必在進洞時均以土粒形成土塚保護在地道穿口外,土塚土粒含有養分常低於鄰近土壤。台灣大蟋蟀成蟲常擴大地道半徑來因應氣候上大量水的衝擊,另一個原因引起地道的演化是因為母蟲在配對後,在地道的新建築行為,這些行為影響地道直徑曲線之形狀。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/34902
其他識別: U0005-1308201008351100
Appears in Collections:水土保持學系

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.