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Investigation of Microwave Assisted Transesterification of Biodiesel
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|摘要:||The purpose of this study was aimed at developing a microwave- assisted transesterification system of biodiesel. The research first conducted and compared different oil transesterification methods such as traditional water-bath heating, ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted. The experimental results obtained showed that under 3 min of transesterification processing, the microwave-assisted method was the best with its transesterification conversion rate up to 70.19% while the traditional were only 46.33 and 51.30%, respectively. The microwave-assisted method demonstrated significant improvement of the ability of oil transesterification. Using the microwave-assisted method of pre-esterification test with four initial free fatty acid contents of 3,5,10and15%,the experimental results obtained showed that under 4 min of pre-esterification processing, the conversion rate of free fatty acid of each set reached saturated condition and were between 49.06 and 58.83% at 3 min of microwave irradiation. At the mean time, the set with 3% of initial free fatty acid was reduced to 1.3%,and the result also showed that the microwave irradiation performed high efficiency in oil pre-esterification. During the multistage microwave-assisted pre-esterification test with 15% of the initial free fatty acid, the experimental results obtained showed that the conversion rate of free fatty acid was up to 74.93% at the third stage. It also expressed that the pre-esterificated process with microwave-assisted could effectively reduce the free fatty acid content in oil and could fit the requirement of low free fatty acid in oil for the further alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. In this study, microwave-assisted transesterification system based on the previous fundamental tests and parameters obtained was built. The optimal condition of the system was obtained using the two-factor Response Surface Method (RSM). The experimental results obtained showed that a second order regression equation with coefficient of determination R2 of 95%, and the optimal condition of microwave irradiation time 3 min 20 sec and catalyst amount 1.1% (w/w) with 73% of transesterification was also found.
Finally, an automated microwave-assisted transesterification system combined with an evaporated condensation unit and the pressure control function was set up to conduct a single feed operation of oil transesterification. The experimental results demonstrated that a stable reaction phenomenon of the system was obtained and the optimal conversion rate of oil transesterification was also maintained. In the future, the results of pre-esterification previously obtained could be combined in a system used for the oil transesterification with high free fatty acid, and the results obtained in this study could also provide for the reference of related industries.|
本研究旨在建立一微波輔助生質柴油轉酯系統，研究首先進行多種輔助油脂轉酯方式比較試驗，即傳統水浴加熱、超音波與微波輔助方式，結果獲致當微波輔助酯化時間設定為3min時，可有最佳之油脂酯轉化率，達70.19%，於相同處理時間下，傳統水浴與超音波輔助二組，其酯轉化率僅分別為46.33%與51.30%，顯示微波輔助組可顯著提高油脂酯轉化效率。此外以初始游離脂肪酸含量為3、5、10及15%之油脂進行微波輔助預酯化1~4min試驗，以探討其輔助降低游離脂肪酸含量之效率，結果獲致轉化率於微波照射3min時，皆可達49.06~58.83%，其中初始游離脂肪酸含量為3%之油脂，經3min試驗後，可降低至1.3%，顯示微波輔助預酯化亦具高預酯化效率；當進一步以初始游離脂肪酸含量為15%之油脂，進行多級預酯化試驗，結果獲致在第三級時，轉化率可達74.93%，顯示微波輔助方式配合多級處理，可有效降低高游離脂肪酸油脂中之游離脂肪酸含量，亦可符合下一階段鹼催化轉酯之需求。本研究依上述各試驗所獲致之參數建置一微波輔助生質柴油轉酯系統，並以微波照射時間與觸媒量二因子設計最佳化參數油脂酯轉化率試驗，試驗結果反應曲面法(Response Surface Method, RSM)獲致一二階迴歸方程式，R2達0.95，其於微波照射時間3min 20sec與觸媒量1.1%(w/w)時，可獲致最佳之預測油脂酯轉化率達73%。 試驗最終係結合上述試驗所獲致之結果建置一自動化微波輔助轉酯系統進行單次進料轉酯化運轉，且進一步設計減壓濃縮冷凝，試驗結果獲致系統內部反應穩定，亦可達最佳化試驗之酯轉化率，未來可結合預酯化之結果，建置具游離脂肪酸油脂預酯化功能之系統，而相關結果亦可以提供相關業者應用參考。
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