Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/35545
標題: 高溫厭氧循序批式處理機屍之研究
Thermophilic anaerobic bath system processing poultry mortalities
作者: 黃俊霖
Lin, Huang Jiun
關鍵字: thermophilic
高溫
UASB
LB
anaerobic
上流式厭氧汙泥床
滲漏床
厭氧
出版社: 農業機械工程學系
摘要: 摘要 本研究比較以高溫(55℃)和中溫(35℃)批式循序厭氧發酵系統處理雞屍廢棄物,探討55℃(UASB)在厭氧處理雞屍的操作特性及穩定性和35℃(UASB)的差異,並探討室溫下LB系統的操作特性。因為隨室溫的變化,對LB中的水解速度,產氣狀況都會有影響,利用批式循序厭養醱酵系統處理雞屍時,雞隻的分解過程可分成兩個階段,第一階段為兩相批式厭氧處理階段(包含UASB及LB),由UASB協助LB進入甲烷相,第二階段為單相厭氧批式處理階段(僅餘LB),此時LB已能自行分解雞屍,當LB進入第二階段後,在第二循環所投入的雞屍便直接依靠LB作處理,不再與UASB銜接。 第一階段中,高溫(55℃)批式循序厭氧發酵系統和中溫(35℃)批式循序厭氧醱酵系統同樣是一種兩相批式循序厭氧系統,類似兩相厭氧醱酵系統,但有些許差異,其由一個上流式厭氧污泥床(UASB)及數個滲漏床(Leachbad以下簡稱LB)所組成的一個封閉循環的系統,傳統的兩相厭氧醱酵系統並不是密閉的,一直會有出流液,所以一直要為系統補充液體,而本系統以批式厭氧方式處理,系統為密閉式的,無需一直補充進流液體,且處理後的殘留液仍能再使用,較能有效控制與處理。其中UASB分別置於高溫(55℃)及中溫(35℃)的保溫箱中,滲漏床則置於室溫條件下。 因為高溫厭氧處理含氮廢棄物時分解較完全,使UASB中會有自由態氨氮濃度過高的問題,故高溫實驗設計上,有調整其中一組系統UASB的pH,控制離子態氨氮及自由態氨氮的反應平衡,降低自由態氨氮濃度,藉以比較調整的優缺點。 結果顯示55℃與35℃的UASB操作特性上, 55℃的反應器較不穩定,初期須要較長的時間適應雞隻廢棄物的水解液,且過程中因非游離態氨氮濃度過高,使UASB表現較35℃反應器差。在作pH的調整上,55℃中有作調整的UASB,其COD及VFA均較沒調整的低,顯示調整pH是有助於系統穩定的,但在對LB的處理成效上,反而未調整pH 的UASB能快速的使LB進入成熟階段。 溫度會影響LB的分解速率,在第一循環的LA55-3及LB55-3,因為室溫曾低於20℃,LB的COD會先降低,之後才又隨溫度回升而提高,因此當白天室溫低於20℃,LB分解速率減緩,產氣不佳,反之有較佳的產氣率,若能依照室溫的變化,注意雞隻處理的排程及LR的控制,或適時的加溫相信可以加速雞屍的分解及產氣,而UASB因為是恆溫操作,而沒有LB面對溫度變化的影響。
ABSTRACT This study compared the performances between thermophilic and mesophilic system treating poultry mortalities using a sequential bath system. This research also discussed the characteristics of leachbeds at room temperature. The change of room temperature in a year influenced the hydrolysis velocity and methane production rate of LBs. It can be divided into two stages using anaerobic sequential bath system to process poultry mortalities. The first stage was two-phased stage included one UASB and one LB, the UASB helped LB to enter the methane phase. The second stage was single phase stage only had LBs in the system, LBs can process dead chicken alone without connecting to UASB, even LB had new dead chicken in the 2nd cycle. In the first stage, two systems used the same two-phase anaerobic sequential bath system, they liked two-phase anaerobic system, but something different. The systems in this study consisted of an UASB and several LBs, and they were closed system. The traditional two-phase anaerobic system was not closed system, it must have influent continuously, but the closed system were not. When the first cycle is over the liquid can be used again and well controlled. UASBs were kept at 55℃ and 35℃ incubators, where the LBs were kept at room temperature. The hydrolysis of nitrogen-rich wastes was more completely in high temperature as 55℃. It came up with the problem of high free-ammonia concentration. So, in the process of the experiment we controlled the pH value of on high temperature UASB, thus we can have lower equilibrium of NH4+ and NH3 , then we compared the differences of UASBs in high temperature. The result showed that UASB in thermophilic temperature is not as stable as mesophilic temperature, it needed longer time to adapt the leachate of LB and it was influenced by the high free-ammonia concentration. When control the pH value, the COD and VFAs were lower than the other, we can have stable UASB in high temperature but in the first stage LBs connected to adjusted-UASB were not good. Temperature influenced the hydrolysis of LBs, in the first cycle, LA55-3 and LB55-3 were started in the range of lower room temperature, and the temperature increased later, so the CODs of LBs had lowed down first and come up with high COD. When the room temperature was lower than 20℃ the hydrolysis and methane production rates were not good . Therefor if we can pay attention to the temperature、schedule of processing dead chickens and LR with the change of room temperature we can have good performances of LBs. UASBs were kept at uniform temperature so they won't have the problem of unstable temperature.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/35545
Appears in Collections:生物產業機電工程學系

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