Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/35651
標題: The development of a lycopene extrudate and the analysis of its anti-oxidative properties
含番茄紅素擠壓休閒產品之開發及其抗氧化活性分析
作者: 黃榮丞
Huang, Rong-Cheng
關鍵字: extrudates
擠壓
lycopene
antioxidative
番茄紅素
抗氧化
出版社: 生物產業機電工程學系
摘要: 本研究主要目的為開發含番茄紅素玉米擠壓休閒產品,並評估其抗氧化功能。研究分為兩階段,第一階段:為利用國產單軸擠壓機,開發含番茄紅素擠壓休閒產品。法針對擠壓機螺軸轉速(200、250、300rpm)、原料含水率(10、13、16%)及番茄粉添加比例(10、20、30%)等,利用反應曲面探討此等操作條件對於擠壓產品膨發率、假密度、硬度值、最大剪切力、糊化程度指標、水溶性指標與吸水性指標及含水率之影響,並找出最適操作條件範圍,其所得結論如下: 1. 提高螺軸轉速,產品徑向膨發率有先升後降的趨勢,縱向膨發呈現先降後升的趨勢。另外,吸水性指標隨著螺軸轉速有先降後升的趨勢。 2. 隨著原料含水率的增加,徑向膨發率與糊化度指標有先上升後下降的趨勢。原料含水率與產品之縱向膨發及水溶性指標與吸水性指標呈現負相關,產品假密度及產品含水率則與含水率成正相關。另外,隨著原料含水率的增加,產品最大剪切力及硬度值隨著原料含水率有增加的趨勢。 3. 增加番茄粉的比例,產品徑向膨發率先升後降,縱向膨發則降低,硬度及最大剪切力隨著番茄粉添加比例增加有增大的趨勢。 4. 綜合產品假密度、硬度值、徑向膨發率、糊化度指標與吸水性指標五種反應性狀作為評估工作之條件。由上述各性狀顯示,在螺軸轉速250rpm下,最適原料含水率分佈範圍為12.3%至12.8%之間,而番茄粉添加比例為23.6%至26.2%之間。 5. 在此最適範圍下選取,原料含水率為12.5%、番茄粉比例為25.0%。將此驗證條件帶入各性狀之迴歸模式可得實驗預估值,與實際擠壓產品之性狀數據比較,經統計t檢定之後,均無顯著差異,表示本研究之最適操作條件可實際應用於本產品之開發。 第二階段之抗氧化功能評估實驗則選定第一階段擠壓機最適之操作條件範圍中:螺軸轉速250rpm,模具溫度100℃,以及原料含水率為12.5%,進行玉米粉(75%)中添加番茄粉(25%)之實驗,同時增加添加米榖粉(25%)及蕎麥粉(25%)等實驗組。針對這些實驗組未擠壓前之原料與經擠壓製程之產品,評估其抗氧化性如:抗氧化能力之測定(氫過氧化物、共軛雙烯、微脂粒氧化作用之抑制),清除自由基、活性氧及螯合能力之測定(清除DPPH自由基能力、清除超氧陰離子能力、清除過氧化氫能力、螯合亞鐵離子能力),還原能力之測定(還原能力)。另外,亦加入BHA和α-生育醇為對照組進行抗氧化性之評估。研究結果顯示: 1. 抗氧化能力之測定項目中,對抑制氫過氧化物能力與抑制共軛雙烯能力方面,以添加番茄粉最高,其次是添加蕎麥粉,最低則是添加米穀粉。隨著反應時間的增加,添加蕎麥粉與米穀粉之處理組的抗氧化能力有下降的趨勢,相對的,添加番茄粉之處理組,其抗氧化能力隨著時間的增加並無明顯之降低。在微脂粒氧化作用之抑制方面,添加番茄粉與蕎麥粉無顯著差異,最低則是添加米穀粉。 2. 針對不同添加原料抗氧化特性評估項目中,清除自由基、活性氧、螯合能力及還原能力之測定方面,添加番茄粉之處理組皆具有優於添加蕎麥粉與米穀粉之處理組。 3. 擠壓與否之產品,在氫過氧化物、共軛雙烯、微脂粒氧化作用之抑制能力、清除過氧化氫能力與還原力方面無顯著差異;在清除DPPH自由基能力、清除超氧陰離子及螯合亞鐵離子能力方面皆有顯著差異。在清除DPPH自由基能力方面,經擠壓後之產品能力較低。但在清除超氧陰離子及螯合亞鐵離子能力方面,經擠壓製程後之能力值較高。
Lycopene was used as an additive to produce a rice snack food by using a single-screw extruder and the anti-oxdative properties of extrudates were analyed. Two experiments were designed in this research. In the first experiment, the response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of operation variables (screw speed, moisture content and tomato powder content) on extrudate's physical properties (expansion ratio, bulk density, shear force, hardness and moisture content) and chemical properties (degree of gelatinization, water solubility index, water absorption index) and then the extruder's optimum operation conditions were developed.The experiment results showed that: 1. The extrudate's radial expension ratio increased with increasing screw speed, and then decreased gradually. The extrudate's longitudinal expansion and water absorption index decreased with increasing screw speed, and then increased gradually. 2. The extrudate's radial expension ratio and degree of gelatinization increased with moisture content of raw material, and then decreased gradually. Increasing the moisture content of raw material increased the extrudate's moisture content, bulk density, shear forces and hardness, but decreased longitudinal expansion, water solubility index and water absorption index. 3. The extrudate's radial expension ratio decreased with increasing tomato powder content and then decreased gradually. The extrudate's longitudinal expansion decreased, but shear fores and hardness increased with increasing tomato powder content. 4. The extrudate's optimum operation conditions found through the response surface methodology in this study were that moisture content of raw material between 12.3% and 12.8%, ratio of tomato powder between 23.6% and 26.2% under 250rpm screw speed. 5. An experiment was taken to testify the response of dependent variables under the conditions (12.5% moisture content and 25.0% tomato powder). The results showed that there were no significant differences between the regression and experiment results. According to the obove results, it was showed that the optimum operation conditions in this study were suitable for the production of tomato snack food. At the second experiment, the optimum operation variables were 1000C die temperature, 12.5% moisture content, 25.0% tomato powder and 250rpm screw speed. The corn grit (75%) with tomato powder (25%), rice grit (25%) and buckwheat grit (25%) were used to investigate the antioxidative function. The antioxidative characteristics such as inhibition on hydroperoxide, formation of conjugate diene and liposome oxidation, scavenging DPPH radical, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide ability, ferrous ion chelating power and reducing power for all the treatments of raw materials and extrudates were determined. BHA and α-tocopherol were added as the controls for the experiment. The experimental results showed that: 1. For the inhibition on hydroperoxide and formation of conjugate diene, extrudates with the tomato powder reached the highest; extrudates with the buckwheat powder was the second, as well as extrudates with the rice powder reached the lowest. With the increase of time, inhibition of extrudates with the buckwheat and rice powder decreased, but extrudates with the tomato powder were different. For inhibition on liposome oxidation, extrudates with the tomato powder and buckwheat powder had no significant differences, as well as extrudates with the rice powder reached the lowest. 2. Extrudates with the tomato powder in scavenging DPPH radical ability such as the superoxide anion scavenging ability, scavenging hydrogen peroxide ability, ferrous ion chelating power and reducing power. surpassed extrudates with other additives. 3. There were no significant differences on the inhibition on hydroperoxide, formation of conjugate diene and liposome oxidation, scavenging hydrogen peroxide ability and reducing power between extruded and non-extruded treatments. There were significant differences on scavenging DPPH radical ability etc. The extruded samples had the lower scavenging DPPH radical ablity, however, the higher scavenging superoxide anion and ferrous ion chelating power.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/35651
Appears in Collections:生物產業機電工程學系

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