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Study on Shelling Machine for Peanuts
落花生為國內極重要的一項農產品，自整地、管理、收穫及加工均已有機械可使用，其中有關脫殼作業雖已有一些脫殼機在使用，但使用時其效果差異很大，此之原因即在基本研究探討不足，因此本研究係針對應用最廣的橡膠平板摩擦式落花生脫殼機進行基礎研究，經試驗知：落花生脫殼機之脫殼影響因子有許多，但以下列三項為主：（一）脫殼間隙 (二) 脫殼摩擦面轉速 (三) 脫殼摩擦面硬度等。在進行脫殼作業時，當脫殼間隙愈小，其脫殼率及損傷率亦相對的愈高，反之，其脫殼率及損傷率即會下降。當脫殼間隙為一定時，脫殼轉速愈高則其脫殼率及損傷率亦會提升，反之，則其脫殼率及損傷率即下降。若脫殼摩擦面硬度改變時，脫殼率及損傷率隨之改變，而脫殼處理量則視脫殼條件而定。若以脫殼損傷率為主時，落花生含水率13.2 %，橡膠摩擦面硬度40°，脫殼間隙 14mm及轉速300RPM 時其脫殼處理量為492.1 kg/hr，脫殼率為75.05 % ，脫殼損傷率為2.87 % ，具有本試驗之最佳脫殼結果。
ABSTRACT Peanut is a very important agricultural product in Taiwan. All kinds of machines are develop and adopted into the peanut production, which include land preparation, tillage, seeding, field management, harvesting, storage, and processing. All work are important in peanut production, however, shelling (or husking) which is especially important, is a necessary step to produce seeds and processing products. Several different peanut shelling machines are available to farmers or factories. The performance of these shelling machines can not be well controlled due to lack of basic study. The purpose of this study is to find out the key factors to influence the performance of a shelling machine. A plastic friction plate type of shelling machine, which is widely adopted by factories, is selected in this study. Through the tests, the results showed many factors to influence the shelling performance indeed. However, there are three main influent factors; shelling revolution speed, and plate hardness. As the shelling interval is smaller, the shelling percentage and breakage are higher. In other words, the large shelling interval can bring low shelling percentage and breakage percentage. As the shelling interval is fixed, to increase the revolution speed will raise the shelling percentage and breakage percentage. To lower the revolution speed will have the reverse effect. The plate hardness does influence the performance also. The softer plate does have the better result. The shell speed is determined by all related factors. In most cases, the high shelling speed is accompanied with high shelling percentage and breakage percentage. Only considering lowering breakage percentage, the combination of soft plate, low revolution speed, high moisture content, and proper interval will generate the best result. In this study, the combination of peanut pods with 13.2% m.c.,plate hardness of 40, shelling interval of 14 mm, and revolution speed of 300RPM can have the best test results of shelling percentage of 75.05%, breakage percentage of 2.87%, and shelling speed of 494.1kg/hr in this study. Keyword : Peanut, shelling machine.
|Appears in Collections:||生物產業機電工程學系|
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