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Study On the Kinetics of Synthesizing Benzoic Acid Esters Via Phase-Transfer Catalysis
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第三部份在探討固定化觸媒催化酚化鈉與氯化苯甲醯進行酯化反應動力學，是以三級胺固定在高分子擔體上，結果顯示只要用少量觸媒(交聯度1.375% DVB, 40~80mesh, 三丁基胺, 含致孔劑)在25℃、300rpm條件下，反應不到一小時產率可達100%。在添加致孔劑(4-甲基2-戊醇)情況下反應性比沒添加致孔劑來的好，是因為加入致孔劑可以使固體觸媒的內部孔徑變大進而有利於反應物的質傳與內部擴散。而在固體觸媒上的觸媒中間體隨反應的變化量是可以被測量出的。在交聯度為1.38%DVB下，增加攪拌速率及減少觸媒粒徑可以增加反應速率，在三相反應中添加無機鹽類變數。|
Abstract In this dissertation, the purpose of this study is to explore the effects of operating factors and different substituted groups in the benzene ring of aqueous reactants on synthesizing benzoic acid esters via liquid-liquid, third-liquid and solid-liquid-liquid phases-transfer catalysis. The operating parameters, including agitation speeds, amounts of catalyst, volume of water, types of solvent, reaction temperature, types of inorganic salt and phase-transfer catalyst, were all performed to find the optimal reaction conditions. The reaction mechanism and kinetics were proposed. The first part is to investigate the reactions of sodium phenoxide and sodium 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxide with benzoyl chloride to synthesize phenyl benzoate and 4-chloro-3-methylphenyl benzoate, respectively, by liquid-liquid phase-transfer catalysis. In phenyl benzoate system, the catalytic intermediate (ArOQ) was not observed in the organic phase during the reaction using heptane as the solvent; while in dichlorobenzene, its amount was about 20-30% of the initial usage of catalyst. The concentrations of ArOQ for different agitation speeds are near constant after 20 min of duration. Extra additions of NaOH also affected the overall reaction rate significantly due to that the extraction of ArOQ into the organic phase was influenced by hydroxide anion. The concentration of ArOQ decreased with increasing amount of NaOH at a usage of greater than 0.025mol. In 4-chloro-3-methylphenyl benzoate system, the benzoylation reaction was occurred in the organic phase. About 0.55-0.65 fractions of the catalyst in chlorobenzene were in the form of catalytic intermediate tetrabutylammonium 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxide (ArOQ) during reaction, and are near constant after 6 min of induction period. Extra additions of NaCl and NaBr into the aqueous phase increased the concentration of ArOQ in the organic phase and then enhanced the overall reaction, while a poison effect was observed with extra addition of NaI. The second part is to investigate the reactions of sodium 4-acetylphenoxide or sodium 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxide with benzoyl chloride to synthesize 4-acetylphenyl benzoate and 4-chloro-3-methylphenyl benzoate, respectively, via third-liquid phase-transfer catalysis. In 4-acetylphenyl benzoate system, the benzoylation reaction was occurred in the interface of the organic/third-liquid phases. The reaction rate was observed to be strongly dependent on agitation speeds in the third-phase catalytic reaction. By forming the third-liquid phase, the observed reaction can be greatly enhanced to give a product yield of 100% in a duration of 3 min at 20℃ and 200 rpm. If third-liquid phase was not formed in liquid-liquid system, the reaction rate is very slow and the product yield is only 2% in 3 min at 20℃. The reaction conducted in third-liquid phase-transfer catalytic system is faster than that in LLPTC system by 25-28 folds. The amount of catalytic intermediate (ROQ) in the third-liquid phase was about 50% of the catalyst initially added and kept about 30% of it after 1 min, and only small amounts of catalytic intermediate residing in the organic phase were observed during the reaction using methyl t-butyl ether as the solvent. The concentration of catalytic intermediate slightly decreased with increasing reaction time, while the molar ratio of ROQ to benzyl tri-n-butylammonium cation in the third-liquid phase kept almost constant after 1 min and increased with increasing agitation speeds. In 4-chloro-3-methylphenyl benzoate system, the third-liquid phase can be prepared from benzyl tri-n-butylammonium bromide (QBr) reacted with sodium 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxide in the presence of NaCl. The observed reaction rate was strongly dependent on the agitation speeds. When the temperature rises to 30℃ from 15 ℃, the product yield in the organic phase increases to 76.0% from 27.1% in 3 min of reaction, showing a high catalytic efficiency by third-liquid phase-transfer catalysis. The catalytic intermediate (ROQ) was synthesized and the variations of the composition in the third-liquid phase were analyzed during the reaction, including aqueous reactant, organic reactant, product, catalytic intermediate and Q+ (cation of catalyst). The amount of ROQ in the third-liquid phase was about 87.4% of the initial catalyst and decreased with reaction time, and the molar ratio of ROQ to Q+ in the third-liquid phase kept almost constant after 2 min of reaction. Using n-heptane as the solvent, ROQ was not found in the organic phase; the main reaction conducted in the third-liquid phase. The third part is to investigate the kinetics for esterification of sodium phenoxide with benzoyl chloride by triphase catalysis. The product yield was obtained 100% in 1 h of reaction using a small amount of catalyst which was functionalized with triakylamine to form the quaternary ammonium chloride (as p-Q＋Cl－) on the surface of styrene/chloromethylstyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer prepared with or without 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4M2P) as the pore template. The catalysts prepared with 4M2P have a higher activity than without using 4M2P for the same %DVB and functional group, due to much larger pore-mouth on the outer surface of the catalyst. The amount of catalytic intermediate as p-Q＋OPh－ from the reaction of sodium phenoxide (PhONa) with the active center p-Q＋Cl－ within the catalyst was determined, showing a great increase during the reaction. The reaction rate increased with increasing agitation speed and decreasing mean particle sizes for 1.38% divinylbenzene (DVB) cross-linked. Extra additions of inorganic salts on the performance of triphase catalyst were also explored.
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