Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/3638
標題: 使用聚醚碸薄膜進行果糖-直接滲透於去鹽程序之應用
Desalination by Fructose-Forward Osmosis Process Using Polyethersulfone Membranes
作者: 楊世祺
Yang, Shih-Chi
關鍵字: Forward osmosis
直接滲透
Reverse osmosis
Polyethersulfone membrane
Sulfonation
Membrane preparation
逆滲透
polyethersulfone薄膜
磺化
薄膜製備
出版社: 化學工程學系所
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The Effect of Using Clarified Tomato Juice on the Process Performance. Journal of Membrane Science 160 (1999) 171. [7] K.B. Petrotos, H.N. Lazarides, Osmotic Concentration of Liquid Foods. Journal of Food Engineering 49 (2001) 201. [8] B. Jiao, A. Cassano, E. Drioli, Recent Advances on Membrane Processes for the Concentration of Fruit Juices: a Review. Journal of Food Engineering 63 (2004) 303. [9] T.Y. Cath, S. Gormly, E.G. Beaudry, M.T. Flynn, V.D. Adams, A.E. Childress, Membrane Contactor Processes for Wastewater Reclamation in Space Part I. Direct Osmotic Concentration as Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis. Journal of Membrane Science 257 (2005) 85. [10] T.Y. Cath, D. Adams, A.E. Childress, Membrane Contactor Processes for Wastewater Reclamation in Space II. Combined Direct Osmosis, Osmotic Distillation, and Membrane Distillation for Treatment of Metabolic Wastewater. Journal of Membrane Science 257 (2005) 111. [11] Y. Nagata, Treatment of Landfill Leachate, M.E. thesis, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 2005. [12] J.-K. Fang, H.-C. Chiu, J.-Y. Wu, S.-Y. Suen, Preparation of Polysulfone-Based Cation-Exchange Membranes and their Application in Protein Separation with a Plate-and-Frame Module. Reactive and Functional Polymers 59 (2004) 171. [13] T. Y. Cath, A. E. Childress, M. Elimelech, Forward osmosis: Principles, applications, and recent developments, Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 70–87. [14] R.J. Aaberg, Osmotic power—a new and powerful renewable energy source, ReFocus 4 (2003) 48–50. [15] S. Loeb, Energy production at the Dead Sea by pressure-retarded osmosis: challenge or chimera? Desalination 120 (1998) 247–262. [16] S. Loeb, One hundred and thirty benign and renewable megawatts from Great Salt Lake? The possibilities of hydroelectric power by pressureretarded osmosis, Desalination 141 (2001) 85–91. [17] G.W. Batchelder, Process for the demineralization of water, US Patent 3,171,799 (1965). [18] D.N. Glew, Process for liquid recovery and solution concentration, US Patent 3,216,930 (1965). [19] B.S. Frank, Desalination of Sea Water, US Patent 3,670,897 (1972). [20] J.O. Kessler, C.D. Moody, Drinking water from sea water by forward osmosis, Desalination 18 (1976) 297–306. [21] R.E. Kravath and J.A. Davis, Desalination of seawater by direct osmosis, Desalination 16 (1975) 151-155. [22] R.L. McGinnis, Osmotic desalination process (2), US Patent 6,391,205 (2002). [23] J.R. McCutcheon, R.L. McGinnis, M. Elimelech, Desalination by a novel ammonia–carbon dioxide forward osmosis process: influence of draw and feed solution concentrations on process performance, Journal of Membrane Science 278 (2006) 114–123. [24] K. Stache, Apparatus for transforming sea water, brackish water, polluted water or the like into a nutritious drink by means of osmosis, US Patent 4,879,030 (1989). [25] J. Yaeli, Method and Apparatus for Processing Liquid Solutions of Suspensions Particularly Useful in the Desalination of Saline Water, US Patent 5,098,575, (1992). [26] M. Mulder, Basic Principle of Membrane Technology. Kluwer Academic Publisher, London, 1991. [27] 郭文正,曾添文, 薄膜分離. 高立圖書公司, 台北, 台灣, 1988. [28] M.J. Han, B. Dibakar, Changes in Morphology and Transport Characteristics of Polysulfone Membranes Prepared by Different Demixing Conditions. Journal of Membrane Science 98 (1995) 191. [29] R.W. Baker, Membrane Technology and Applications, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., New York, NY, 2004. [30] S. Loeb, L. Titelman, E. Korngold, J. Freiman, Effect of porous support fabric on osmosis through a Loeb–Sourirajan type asymmetric membrane, Journal of Membrane Science 129 (1997) 243–249. [31] I. Goosens, A. Van-Haute, The use of direct osmosis tests as complementary experiments to determine the water and salt permeabilities of reinforced cellulose acetate membranes, Desalination 26 (1978) 299–308. [32] G.D. Mehta, S. Loeb, Internal polarization in the porous substructure of a semi-permeable membrane under pressure- retarded osmosis, Journal of Membrane Science 4 (1978) 261. [33] G.D. Mehta, S. Loeb, Performance of Permasep B-9 and B-10 membranes in various osmotic regions and at high osmotic pressures, Journal of Membrane Science 4 (1979) 335–349. [34] M. S. Kang, Y. J. Choi, I. J. Choi, T. H. Yoon, S. H. Moon, Electrochemical characterization of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (S-PES) cation-exchange membranes. Journal of Membrane Science 216 (2003) 39–53. [35] G. J. Hwang, K. H. Ohya, T. Nagai, Ion exchange membrane based on block copolymers. Part III: preparation of cation exchange membrane, Journal of Membrane Science 156 (2006) 114–123. [36] T. H. Young, L. W. 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摘要: 本研究以乾濕式混合製程製備出厚度小且緻密型的polyethersulfone (PES)薄膜,厚度為4-12 μm,含水率4.2-7.2 wt%。由直接滲透批次程序與流動程序結果發現:磺化後之PES薄膜雖然比PES薄膜有較高的水通量,卻呈現較低的NaCl阻絕率。厚度較厚之PES薄膜雖較有效的阻絕NaCl通過,但水通量較低。另外,加入超過濾ZM 500薄膜作為支撐層之後,使得PES薄膜有較高的NaCl阻絕率,但卻也降低了水通量。在流動程序中,有無支撐層的影響較明顯。由本研究流動程序結果所得之最佳直接滲透薄膜為:PES 30 (3.5±0.5 μm)加上ZM 500超過濾薄膜作為支撐層;於60 mL/min的流速下所得水通量為0.65 (L m-2 hr-1) ,皆比商業逆滲透薄膜CE [0.42 (L m-2 hr-1)]與AG [0.11 (L m-2 hr-1)]高,且 NaCl阻絕率也和CE與AG膜相近,皆在98.2%以上。
In this study, thin and dense polyethersulfone membranes with thickness of 4-12 μm and water content of 4.2-8.3 wt% were prepared. By conducting the batch FO (forward osmosis) process and the flow FO forward osmosis process, the water flux achieved by the sulfonated PES membrane was much higher than those obtained for the PES membranes, but its NaCl rejection was lower. The PES membrane with larger thickness had higher salt rejection and lower water flux. Moreover, by using the ultrafiltraion membrane ZM 500 as support layer, the PES membranes exhibited higher salt rejection and lower water flux. Especially in the flow process, the use of support layer had significant effect on water flux and NaCl rejection. As a result of the flow FO process, the optimal FO membrane obtained in this study is the PES 30 membrane (3.5±0.5 μm) with ZM 500 as support layer. Its flux is 0.65 (L m-2 hr-1) under 60 mL/min operation and it could attain high salt rejection (higher than 98.2%).
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/3638
其他識別: U0005-2208200719510400
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2208200719510400
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