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Studies on Micropropagation of Echinacea purpurea
temporary immersion systems
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|摘要:||Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench為重要的北美多年生草本藥用植物，抗氧化能力與藥用保健價值明確，需求量日增致棲地過度被採擷，人工栽培紫錐菊為必然之趨勢。紫錐菊為常異交植物，田間選出生物量大且有效成分高的單株；若能低價量化，則可進行商業生產。
以宿根植株再生葉片為材料，以1% NaOCl消毒20分鐘後培養於含有0.54 μM (0.1 mg/l) NAA及0.44-0.88 μM (0.1-0.2 mg/l) BA的誘導芽體培養基，至第四週可獲得不定芽，隨BA增加芽體誘導率及芽數均增加，再生植株成功率為90％(37株)。以0-1.96 μM (0-0.4 mg/l) IBA進行試管苗發根處理，結果發現隨IBA濃度增加根數增加，但根長減短。芽長芽之芽數隨BA濃度及培養時間而增加，培養4週後可達3倍以上的芽數。
透氣孔數及瓶內培養密度對組培苗生產的影響以兩篩選株進行試驗。隨透氣孔數與瓶內培養密度增加能顯著降低瓶苗水化率，顯著提高瓶苗生長速率如株高、新葉數及瓶內發根速率，並可增加瓶苗葉片葉綠素含量，提高鮮重、乾重、乾鮮重比值及出瓶存活率；透氣孔數及瓶內培養密度以2個孔及21株(株/3.4 cm2)或4個孔及28株(株/2.5 cm2)的處理組合對瓶苗發根率、生長速率及出瓶存活為佳。
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is an important perennial herbal medicinal plant of North America, it's anti-oxidant capacity and medicinal use for health are valuable. The demand increases in recent years and causes habitat damage, resulting in cultivation of purple coneflower become more and more important from now on. The elite plants of purple coneflower are not easy to maintain because that it is an open-pollinated plant producing variable offspring. The cultivation will be valuable if the micropropagation of plant with high biomass and effective ingredients can be done well cheaply. Elite plants with good agronomy characteristics, large biomass and high cichoric acid content, over 2.2%, that pass commercial requirement were were used to study effects of ventilation and density (V&D) on micropropagation. In addition, the growth of E. purpurea in temportary immersion system (TIS) were also studied. This is the first report related to tissue culture of rationed elite plant of E. purpurea. Explants of leaves of ratiooned elite plant were used to induce shoots in medium containing 0.54 μM (0.1 mg/l) NAA and 0.44-0.88 μM (0.1-0.2 mg/l) BA for 4 weeks. Shoot induction rate and shoot number per explant increased as the BA concentration increased. Plantlets of 37 selected elite plant, about 90%, were established in vitro. Plantlets with more roots and shorter roots increased as the media containing higher IBA concentrations ranging from 0-1.96 μM (0-0.4 mg/l) IBA. Shoots derived from bud explants increased more than 3 times for 4 weeks with media containing higher BA concentrations. To study the effects of V&D on the plantlet growth in vitro, two selected elite plant were used. As the ventilation pore number of cover foil and plant density in vitro increased the following outcomes occurred. The hyperhydric plantlets decreased significantly. Plantlet growing speed for plant height, leaf number and rooting increased. The leaf chlorophyll content, fresh weight, dry weight, fresh/dry ratio all increased and the survival rates were then promoted. The treatments with 2 ventilation pores and 21 plantlets per flask or 4 ventilation pores and 28 plantlets per flask have higher rooted-plantlet rates, growth rates and survival rates. As the time interval between air pumping of TIS increased the hyperhydric plantlets decreased significantly, plantlet growing speed for plant height, leaf number and rooting rate increased, then, the survival rate increased. The 6 hours interval treatment made plantlets with higher rooted-plantlet rate, growth rate and survival rate. Comparing the outcomes of TIS and V&D treatments, We got plantlets with more decreasing hyperhydricity, increasing rooting rate, growth rate and survival rate by TIS than those plantlets of V&D treatments.
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