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Population Variation of Wild Soybean(Glycine dolichocarpa, G. tabacina and G. tomentella) in Taiwan-Characteristics of the Botanic Origin of I-Tiao-Gung-
|摘要:||台灣地區分布有三種多年生野生大豆G. tabacina、G. tomentella及G. dolichocarpa，金門地區以G. tomentella作為「一條根」藥材使用，開發出多種保健產品，成為當地極負盛名之特產；澎湖地區則以G. tabacina，屏東地區也以G. tomentella作為「一條根」藥材使用，且已有數十年歷史。但有關「一條根」基原植物之科學化研究仍相當少。因此本試驗首先分析台灣三種野生大豆之主要成分及種間變異，並且調查各指標成分在一年中之季節變化，探討其藥材之最適採收期，之後將各生育地收集的種子種植在同一試驗地，研究其指標成分的種內變異及「一條根」的適當「品種」，繼而針對不同地區族群以生藥學解剖性狀進行基原植物之鑑別，作為該植物在種原收集、基原鑑定、藥材栽培及利用之參考。
調查三種野生大豆植株之根部、莖、葉及種子的異黃酮總含量結果，均以G. tabacina最高，G. tomentella次之，G. dolichocarpa最低，且以根部之含量最高，次為莖部；而根部異黃酮成分中，又以daidzein含量佔最多，其次為daidzin，此二成分合計佔總含量之99﹪以上，為根部的主要成分。
將三種野生大豆栽培於同一環境，調查根部異黃酮含量在一年12個月份中之變化，結果得知在其開花期前後異黃酮含量有下降的趨勢，而在秋冬之際達最高，因此G. tabacina（大池族群）宜在10或12月採收，而G. tomentella（恆春族群）與G. dolichocarpa（東河族群）在10月為收穫最適期。由本試驗也得知適當之栽培管理可提高異黃酮成分。
本試驗收集G. tabacina 3個地區、G. tomentella 3個地區及G. dolichocarpa 2個地區族群種植在同一地區，得知三個種之異黃酮成分在地區族群間有變異；其中G. tabacina以澎湖白沙族群含量最高，大池族群次之，沙港族群較低，種內已呈地區分化現象。本試驗之三個species，皆以澎湖分布之G. tabacina族群具有較高isoflavone aglycone與isoflavone glucoside類之含量，且以白沙地區最好，將來在種原維持及收集與利用必須特別注意白沙族群，及地區間之差異。
以根部組織之解剖性狀作為地區間與種間之生藥材的鑑別得知：在種內地區間G. tabacina以木栓層細胞長及寬、皮層細胞長及寬、導管直徑及木部髓線細胞層等性狀；G. tomentella由皮層細胞長及寬、形成層及澱粉粒直徑等性狀；G. dolichocarpa可以木栓層細胞層數、細胞長及細胞寬、皮層數目、皮層細胞長及寬、草酸鈣結晶及導管直徑等性狀來鑑別。而在種間G. tabacina與G. tomentella之間差異，G. tabacina皮層細胞長及寬都較大、草酸鈣結晶及導管直徑則較小；G. tabacina與G. dolichocarpa間，G. tabacina皮層細胞長較大、澱粉粒、草酸鈣結晶及導管直徑都較小；G. tomentella與G. dolichocarpa間，G. tomentella皮層細胞長較大，皮層細胞寬較小、澱粉粒及導管直徑都較大；而G. max之皮層細胞寬及導管直徑都較其它種小，且不具澱粉粒，以上性狀可用來作為鑑別各種間之差異。|
Three perennial Glycine species, G. tabacina, G. tomentella and G. dolichocarpa, are known to be native to Taiwan. In King-Men, G. tomentella is an economical crop. Its roots are used as the source of the crude drug, “I-Tiao-Gung,” which is used in various health care products. The roots of wild G. tabacina in Pong-Fu, as well as G. tomentella in Ping-Tong, are also used as the source of I-Tiao-Gung. While I-Taio-Gung has been used for medical purposes for many years, little work has been done on the identification of the botanical origin of its source plants. In this study, the main components and variations among the three wild soybean species in Taiwan are investigated. The seasonal variation of marker components are also investigated to identify the harvesting periods for crude drug uses. Species collected from different locations were cultivated in the same farm to determine the suitable “variety” of “I-Tiao-Gung” based on the variations of marker components. Also, the population variations of the botanical origins are studied based on anatomical characters. The results of this study can serve as selection and quality parameters in Glycine germplasm, in collection programs, and in herbal medicine cultivation. These three species of perennial wild soybean are evaluated based on the isoflavone contents in four different organs. The results indicate that G. tabacina has the highest total isoflavone contents, followed by G. tomentella, and G. dolichocarpa has the least. The root is found to have the highest contents of isoflavones, followed by the stem. Daidzein is the major isoflavone constituent in roots, followed by daidzin. These two components, daidzein and daidzin, accounts for over 99﹪of the total isoflavones, and are the major component of these three wild soybean species. The three species of perennial wild soybean were planted in the same farm to investigate the seasonal variation of isoflavone contents in a one year period. The results show that total isoflavone contents lowered during flowering stage in all three species and reached the highest level in the autumn and the winter. October and December are the suitable harvest time for G. tabacina(Duchr population). October is suitable for G. tomentella(Hengchuen population)and G. dolichocarpa(Dunghe population). Also, the isoflavone contents can be increased by suitable culture as indicated by our results. Significant differences in isoflavone contents exist among the three populations of G. tabacina, three populations of G. tomentella, and two populations of G. dolichocarpa, planted in the same field. Baisha population of G. tabacina has the highest total isoflavone contents, followed by Duchr, and Shagang has less. There appears to be geographical genetic variations in G. tabacina plant components, and there is variation among populations in species. The populations of G. tabacina in Pong-Fu have higher isoflavone aglycone and glucoside contents, and the population of Baisha has the highest. For germplasm conservation, the plants should be collected from different locations, and special attention needs to be paid to the Baisha population. The anatomical characters of the roots of 12 populations of Glycine species in Taiwan are studied and used to identify the geographical and interspecies variations. The results show that G. tabacina can be distinguished by the length and width of cork cell, the length and width of cortex cell, the vessel diameter, and the xylem ray among populations; G. tomentella by the length and width of cork cell, the cambium, and the diameter of starch grain; and G. dolichcarpa by the number of cork cell layers, the length and width of cork cell, the number of cortex cell layers, the length of cortex cell, the width of cortex cell, and the diameter of clustered crystal and vessel . The differences between the species of G. tabacina and G. tomentella are follows: G. tabacina has larger cortex cell length and width, smaller clustered crystal and vessel diameters. Between the species of G. tabacina and G. dolichcarp, G. tabacina has larger cortex cell length, smaller starch grain, clustered crystal, and vessel diameters. Between the species of G. tomentella and G. dolichcarp, G. tomentella has larger cortex cell length, smaller cortex cell width, larger starch grain and vessel diameters. G. max has smaller cortex cell width and vessel diameter than other species and has no starch grain. These characters can be used to distinguish the differences among species.
|Appears in Collections:||農藝學系|
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