Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/36944
標題: 大豆種皮花青素生合成基因CHI及F3'', 5''H之選殖與分析
Molecular cloning and expression of chalcone isomerase (CHI) and flavonoid 3'', 5'' hydroxylase (F3'', 5''H) genes in seed coats of soybean (Glycine max)
作者: 廖仁盟
Liao, Ren-Mong
關鍵字: chalcone isomerase
CHI基因
soybean
anthocyanin
molecular cloning
大豆
花青素
基因選殖
出版社: 農藝學系所
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摘要: 花色為決定花卉商品價值之重要因子,大部分花色素屬花青素類,由類黃酮生合成路徑中的花青素生合成路徑所生成,可產生紅色、橘紅色及藍色等植物色素。本試驗選用已知具最複雜且完整花青素生合成路徑之黑色種皮大豆-青仁烏豆為材料,以逆轉錄聚合酵素連鎖反應及基因庫篩選策略選殖大豆CHI (chalcone isomerase)基因,並以基因組步行法(genome walking)選殖大豆的CHI基因,此基因座係由三個CHI基因所組成,其中CHI1及CHI2為類型II,CHI3為類型I,且三者連鎖成一基因群組,為CHS基因群組外,首次發現的CHI基因群組,經RFLP分析顯示大豆中僅此一基因群組,與大豆圖譜相符。目前此三個CHI基因的生化特質、生理功能仍未知,值得進一步探討。F3’, 5’H (flavonoid 3'', 5'' hydroxylase)酵素屬細胞色素P450家族之成員,可在花青素B環3’和5’位置上進行羥化作用而產生藍、紫色色素之前驅物,為產生藍色素delphinidin之關鍵。根據已發表的矮牽牛等基因序列設計退化引子,以逆轉錄聚合酵素連鎖反應策略選殖大豆F3’, 5’H之cDNA片段,並以此探針篩選基因庫,得到GmF3’,5’H之cDNA與基因組殖系。北方雜合分析顯示此基因在花器中微量表現,於種皮發育後期大量表現,南方雜合分析發現,在大豆基因組中GmF3’, 5’H基因以單套方式存在,以基因組步行法選殖分析TW1、Tw1、tW1、tw1四種基因型上游序列發現其基因表現調節機制可能與甲基化有關。選擇花瓣不含delphinidin的菸草,利用基因轉殖技術進行功能性分析,結果發現轉GmF3’, 5’H基因菸草花瓣轉變為淡紫色,此轉基因菸草不僅有delphinidin的累積,同時也增加cyanidin的含量,與之前的轉殖不同來源F3’, 5’H的轉基因菸草或矮牽牛有不同的表現。希望藉由完整基因組結構的選殖與後續基因調控等分析,進一步對類黃酮生合成有更深的認識,並為代謝工程提供更好的應用。
Flavonoids and isoflavonoids are plants specific secondary metabolites. These C6-C3-C6 compounds are derived from the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and play important roles in pigment production, pathogen defense, UV protection, hormone biosynthesis, and so on. Recently, the antioxidant properties of flavonoids elevate their value in human health and nutrition. One of the genes participates in flavonoid and isoflavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone isomerase, was cloned from soybean seed coat. A CHI1 cDNA and a CHI genomic DNA contains CHI1, CHI2 and CHI3 in a cluster, were isolated by library screening and genomic walking, respectively. RFLP analysis showed that the cluster of CHI genes present as a single copy corresponding to the results of physical mapping. The genomic organization of soybean CHI cluster was first identified and characterized in this study, and provides an opportunity to define their precise functions and relationship in the flavonoid biosynthesis in soybean. The enzyme, flavonoid 3', 5' hydroxylase (F3', 5'H), that hydroxylates both 3' and 5' in B-ring of flavonoid controls the formation of blue anthocyanin, delphinidin. The GmF3', 5'H cDNA was cloned from the black seed coats by library screening, and transcripts were expressed in flower and late stages of seed coat during seed development. The regulatory regions of GmF3', 5'H gene were cloned by genome walking from TW1, Tw1, tW1, tw1 genotypes. Methylation of gene may possible involve in controlling gene regulation in soybean seed coats. The overexpression of GmF3', 5'H in transgenic tobacco not only contributed delphinidin accumulation but also increased cyanidin production. This is quite different with most cloned F3', 5'H that accumulated only delphinidin in transgenic plants. The dual function of soybean F3', 5'H would be good choice for investigation and metabolic engineering application such as creation of novel flower pigment.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/36944
其他識別: U0005-1808200911314500
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1808200911314500
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