Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/36964
標題: 不同品種(系),採摘期及製程對紅茶化學成分及感官品評的影響
Changes in chemical and sensory quality paramenters of black tea due to variations of processing condition, plucking seasons and varities(lines)
作者: 蔡政信
Tsai, Cheng-Hsin
關鍵字: Tea

Black tea
Quality
Chemical composition
紅茶
品質
化學分析
出版社: 農藝學系所
引用: 行政院農業委員會農糧署。www.afa.gov.tw。 台灣區製茶工業同業公會。www.taiwantea.org.tw。 尤新輝。1992。從茶葉原料探討茶飲料的品質。食品工業24:16-27。 甘子能。1980a。茶中的咖啡因。食品工業12:20-23。 甘子能。1980b。各種茶的香氣成分。食品工業12:19-22。 甘子能。1981a。茶中的多元酚類成分。食品工業13:10-18。 甘子能。1981b。茶中的多元酚類成分(二)。食品工業13:10-16。 甘子能。1981c。茶中的多元酚類成分(三)。食品工業13:29-34。 甘子能。1982。茶中的游離胺基酸。食品工業14:14-20。 甘子能。1983。近二十年來茶業化學的研究發展。食品工業15:23-27。 甘子能。1985。製茶原理的生化觀。食品工業17:25-37。 朱湧岳、邱瑞騰。1984。臺茶七號及八號新品種之紅茶製造法研究。臺灣茶業研究彙報3:39-52。 吳振鐸。1978。臺灣省茶業改良場概況。茶業改良場編印。pp.28-30。 吳振鐸。1985。臺灣茶葉的分類。臺灣茶業研究彙報4:155-158。 汪呈因。1992。特用作物學。國立編譯館。pp.207-270。 阮逸明。1995。茶,臺灣農家要覽:農作篇(ㄧ)。豐年社。pp.147-162。 阮逸明。1989。茶葉品質常見缺點及可能發生的原因。茶業推廣簡訊11:3-4。 李志仁、鄭正宏。2002。室內萎凋靜置時間對包種茶製茶過程中兒茶素類成分與咖啡因含量變化之影響。臺灣茶業研究彙報21:65-74。 邱垂豐、邱瑞騰、林金池。2004。臺茶18號(紅玉)簡介。茶訊8:8-5。 邱顯明。2004。日治時期臺灣茶業改良之研究。國立中央大學歷史研究所碩士論文。 林金池。1996。萎凋溫度與溼度對白茶品質之影響。國立中興大學農藝學研究所碩士論文。 林木連、賴正南、陳玄、蕭素女、張清寬、陳國任、黃謄鋒、楊盛勳。2001。茶業技術推廣手冊-製茶技術。行政院農委會茶業改良場編印。pp.1-90。 林木連、邱垂豐、林金池、黃正宗。2006。茶業改良場魚池分場建場70 周年紀念專刊。行政院茶業改良場編印。pp.1-128。 林木連、賴正南、陳玄、蕭素女、張清寬、陳國任、黃謄鋒、楊盛勳。2008。臺灣的茶業。遠足文化。pp.1-223。 林宜昕。2008。不同採摘葉位、時期及品種(系)對茶樹多元酚含量之影響。嘉義大學農學研究所碩士論文。 陳英玲。1989。茶多元酚氧化酶之研究(一)。臺灣茶業研究彙報8:83-90。 徐英祥。1995。臺灣日據時期茶業文獻譯集:臺灣茶樹品種。行政院茶業改良場編印。pp.1-25。 徐英祥。2009。台湾の茶。日報印刷株式會社。pp.13-40。 陳清泉。1997。茶紅質與茶黃質之探討。食品工業會刊。7-16。 陳吉村。2008。抗氧化分析技術在農業上之應用。花蓮區農業專訊64:13-15。 陳國任、陳俊良。2004。不同攪拌次數對白毫烏龍茶感官品評與水色色差値之影響。臺灣茶業研究彙報23:107-114。 郭智宏。1999。自然界抗氧化高手之一~兒茶素在生理抗氧化上作用。食品工業會刊31:27-33。 晏文傑。李家璞。杜平悳。2000。類黃酮抗氧化與其結構之關係。臺灣農業化學與食品科學38:80-88。 黃志煜、吳志鴻、張振生、葉永廉、張上鎮。2003。製程與採收季節對茶葉抽出物抗氧化活性之影響。臺大實驗林研究報告17: 231-237。 黃正宗。2004。製程處理不同品種茶樹製造紅茶化學成分與茶湯品質之影響。國立臺灣大學森林學研究所碩士論文。 黃正宗、柯淳涵。2006。不同製程處理對臺茶18號紅茶化學成分變化之影響。臺灣茶業研究彙報 25:197-204。 張如華。1983。利用HPLC分析茶中植物鹼含量變化之研究。臺灣省茶業改良場年報72:51-56。 區少梅、蔡永生、張如華。1988。包種茶酚類化合物分析方法之比較與評估。臺灣茶業研究彙報7:43-46。 葉速卿、吳振鐸。1978。半醱酵茶製造過程中茶葉主要成分之變化與成茶品質之關係研究。中國農業化學會誌16:123-131。 廖學輝。2008。飄香一世紀~魚池紅茶百年風華。南投縣魚池鄉公所。pp.1-96。 蔡志賢、吳宗正、張唯勤。2002。利用生物電子鼻監測包種茶萎凋與攪拌製程可行性之探討。臺灣茶業研究彙報21:89-106。 蔡永生、阮逸明。1987。茶葉中咖啡因快速簡便測定法之研究。臺灣茶業研究彙報6:1-8。 蔡永生、劉士綸、王雪芳、區少梅。2004。臺灣主要栽培茶樹品種兒茶素含量與抗氧化活性之比較。臺灣茶業研究彙報23:115-132。 賴光隆。1992。特用作物學。黎明文化事業公司。 pp.85-100。 賴正南。1996。近30年來茶香氣化學研究之進展。茶訊:3-4。 劉熙。2009。茶樹栽培與茶葉初製。五州出版社。pp.1-346。 蕭淑文。2007。臺灣六十年來茶業技術研究與發展變遷-以「茶業改良場」為中心(1945~2005)。國立中央大學歷史研究所碩士論文。 Arnao, M. B., A. Cano, J. H. Ruiz, F. G. Canovas, and M. Acosta. 1996. Inhibition by L-ascorbic acid and other antioxidants of the 2, 2''-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) oxidation catalyzed by peroxidase: a new approach for determining total antioxidant status of foods. Anal. Biochem. 236:255-261. Bonnely, S., L. D. Adrience, R. L. John, and A. Conrad. 2003. A model oxidation system to study oxidized phenolic compounds present in black tea. Food chem. 83: 485-492. Chen, P. C., F. S. Chang, I. Z. Chen, F. M. Lu, T. J. Cheng, and R. L. C. Chen. 2007. Redox potential of tea infusion as an index for the degree of fermentation. Anal. Chim. Acta 594:32-36. Chou, C. C., L. L. Lon, and T. C. King. 1999. Antimicrobial activity of tea as affected by the degree of fermentation and manufacturing season. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 48:125-130. Duc, T. V., C. K. Huynh, M. Lafontaine, P. Bonnet, and S. Binet. 2002. A spectrophotometric method for the determination of organic soluble matter in bitumen fumes. Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg. HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHTTTTT17TTTTTHHHHH: 495-500. TTTTTEvans, C. A. R., N. J. Miller, and G. Paganga. TTTTT1996. Structure antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 20: 933-956. Frei, B. and J. V. Higdon. 2003. Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: evidence from animal studies. J. Nutr. 133: 3275-3284. Harbone, J. B. 1988. The flavonoids. In: Advances in Reasearch since 1980. New York : Chapman and Hall. pp 1-32. Haslam. E. 2003. Thoughts on thearubigins. Phytochemistry 64:61-73. Hilton, P. J. 1973. Tea in encyclopedia of industrial chemical analysis. 8:445-526. Ho, C. T. 1992. Phenolic compound in food. In: Phenolic Compounds. Am. Chem. Soc. pp 2-7 Khan, N. and H, Mukhtar. 2007. Tea polyphenols for health promotion. Life Sci. 81: 519-533. Kujala, T. S., J. M. Loponen, K. D. Klika, and K. Pihlaja. 2000. Phenolics and betacyanins in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) root: distribution and effect of cold storage on the content of total phenolics and three individual compounds. J. Agr. Food Chem. 48: 5338-5342. Leung, L. K., Y. Su, R. Chen, Z. Zhang, Y. Huang, and Z. Y. Chen. 2001. Theaflavins in black tea and catechins in green tea are equally effective antioxidants. J. Nutr. 131: 2248-2251. Liang, Y., J. Lu, L. Zhang, S. Wu, and Y. Wu. 2003. Estimation of black tea quality by analysis of chemical composition and colour difference of tea infusions. Food Chem. 80: 283-290. Lopez, S. J., T. Jibu, P. K. Pius, R. R. Kumar, and N. Muraleedharan. 2005. A reliable technique to identify superior quality clones from tea gerplasm. Food Chem. 91: 771-778. Luczaj, W. and E. Skrzydlewska. 2005. Antioxidative properties of black tea. Prev. Med. 40: 910-918. Manzocco, L., M. Anese, and M. C. Nicoli. 1998. Antioxidant properties of tea extracts as affected by processing. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. 31: 694-698. Mayer, A. M. 1987. Polyphenol oxidase in plants-recent progress. Phytochemistry 26: 11-20. Millin, D. J., D. J. Crispin, and D. Swaine. 1969. Non-volatile components of black tea and theircontribution to the character of the beverage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 17: 117-122. Miller, N. J., R. E. Catherine, M. J. Davies, V. Gopinathan, and A. Miller. 1993. A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clin. Sci. 84: 407-412. Miller, N. J., C. Cinzia., T. Lilian, and C. Rice-Evan. 1996. The antioxidant Properties of theaflavins and their gallate esters-radical scavengers or metal chelators? FEBS Lett. 392: 40-44. Miller, N. J. and C. Rice-Evan. 1996. Spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant activity. Redox Rep. 2: 161-171. Miller, N. J., J. Sampson, L. P. Candeias, P. M. Bramley, and A. R. E. Catherine. 1996. Antioxidant activities of carotenes and xanthophylls. FEBS Lett. 384: 240-242. Muthumani, T. and R. S. S. Kumar. 2007. Influence of fermentation time on the development of compounds responsible for quality in black tea. Food Chem. 101: 98-102. Nakagawa, M. and H. Torii. 1965. Studies on the flavanols in tea. Agr. Biol. Chem. 29: 278-284. Ngalani, J. A, A. Signoret, and J. Crouzet. 1993. Partial purification and properties of plantain polyphenol oxidase. Food Chem. 48: 341-347. Ngure, F. M., J. K. Wanyoko, S. M. Mahungu, and A. A. Shitandi . 2009. Catechins depletion patterns in relation to theaflavin and thearubigins formation. Food Chem. 115: 8-14. Obanda, M., P. O. Owuor, and R. Mang’oka. 2001. Changes in the chemical and sensory quality parameters of black tea due to variations of fermentation time and temperature. Food Chem. 75: 395-404. Obanda, M., P. O. Owuor, R. Mang’oka, and M. M. Kavoi. 2004. Changes in thearubigin fractions and theaflavin levels due to variations in processing conditions and their influence on black tea liquor brightness and total colour. Food Chem. 85: 163-173. Owuor, P. O., O. Martin, E. N. Hastings, and L. M. Wilson. 2008. Influence of region of production on clonal black tea chemical characteristics. Food Chem. 108: 263-271. Pannala, A. S. and C. Rice-Evans. In: Flavonoids and other polyphenols (Methods in Enzymology Vol. 335); Packer, L. Ed. Academic Press: San Diego, 2001; pp. 266-272. Peterson, J., J. Dwyer, S. Bhagwat, D. Haytowitz, J. Holden, A. L. Eldridge, G. Beecher, and J. Aladesanmi. 2005. Major flavonoids in dry tea. J. Food Compost. Anal. 18:487-501. Prior, R. L., X. Wu, and K. Sohaich. 2005. Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:4290-4302. Rice-Evans, C., N. J. Miller, and G. Paganga. 1997. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci. 2: 152-159. Roberts, E. A. H. 1958. The phenolic substances of manufactured tea. II - Their origin as enzymic oxidation products in fermentation. 9: 212-216. Roberts, E. A. H. and R. F. Smith. 1963. Phenolic substances of manufactured tea. II. Spectrophtometric evaluation of tea liquors. 14: 689-700. Sanderson, G. W., J. E. Berkowitz, H. CO, and H. N. Graham. 1972. Biochemistry of tea fermentation: Porducts of oxidation of tea flavnols in a model tea fermentation system. 37: 399-404. Sharma, V. and L. J. M. Rao. 2009. A thought on the biological activities of black tea. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 49: 379-404. Su, Y. L., K. L. Lai., H. Yu, and Z. Chen. 2003. Stability of tea theaflavins and catechins. Food Chem. 83: 189-195. Subramanian, N., P. Venkatesh, S. Ganguli, and V. P. Sinkar. 1999. Role of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in the generation of black tea theaflavins. Food Chem. 47: 2571-2578. Wang, C. and L.Youngquan. 2006. Research progress on property and application of theaflavins. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5: 213-218. Wiseman, S. A., D. A. Balentine, and B. Frei. 1997. Antioxidants in tea. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 37:705-718. Wight, W. 1959. Classification and nomenclature of the tea plant. Nature 183:1726-1728.
摘要: 本研究針對行政院農委會茶業改良場魚池分場,試驗田所種植的大葉種紅茶B65-37-85-1、B65-37-164-2、台茶8號與18號四個品種(系),採摘春季、夏季一、六月白、秋季之茶菁,進行對照、傳統與攪拌三種不同製程處理,分析各茶樣中多酚、可溶分固形物、總游離胺基酸、茶黃質、茶紅質、總酚等化學成分與抗氧化能力及多酚氧化酶的活性,同時以感官品評評定其品質,探討不同品種、採摘期及不同製程對紅茶品質的影響。 不同品種、採摘期及不同製程,會影響紅茶茶湯感官品評及成茶的化學成分含量,其中品種、製程、採摘期及製程之間具有顯著的交感作用。感官品評的總分最高為72.54分,最低為58.55分,在參試的處理組合中,以台茶18號夏季一及六月白兩季所採摘茶菁,經攪拌製作的紅茶品評得分為最高。紅茶品質總分的高低由感官品評項目決定,其中最重要的決定項目為茶湯水色、滋味及香氣。由成茶化學成分分析的結果顯示,不同品種、採摘期及製程的組合之間,具有顯著差異。在化學成分中影響茶湯滋味及香氣的主要成分為游離胺基酸、咖啡因、多酚及總酚等含量,而決定茶湯水色的化學成分主要為茶黃質及茶紅質,這兩類物質皆為多酚經多酚氧化酶催化氧化、聚合而成,二者皆隨發酵時間增加而提高。紅茶在不同製程中多酚氧化酶活性具有顯著差異,所形成的茶黃質及茶紅質含量不同,這是導致紅茶茶湯水色品評差異的主要原因。
Black tea is fully fermented. Withered leaves undergo biochemical reactions during distortion and fermentation stages in the manufacturing process, after which they are subjected to drying. Tea composition and also the taste and aroma vary with variety, climate, soil, plucking season, age of the leaf, agronomic practices, and manufacture process. In the present study, the effects of variety, plucking seasons, and manufacturing process, on tea liquor sensory characteristics and chemical quality are investigated. Chemical composition, total free amino acid content, caffeine, polyphenols, theaflavins, thearubigins, soluble matters, total phenolic, antioxidant ability, activity of polyphenol oxidase and their relationships with sensory quality assessed by tea tasters were analysed. Tea composition and sensory quality of black tea infusions were significantly affected by variety, plucking seasons, manufacturing process, and their interaction. Total quality scores of the thirty-two tested tea samples ranged from 58.55 to 72.54 with a mean value of 65.85, in which the TTES NO.18 picking up on summer1 or summer2 and manufactured by stirring had the highest total quality score. There were significant relationships between the individual tea quality attributes, and the total quality score was significantly correlated by the individual tea quality attributes. Differences in chemical composition were found in different combination of tea variety, plucking season, and brewing technique. Major compounds responsible for taste and aroma were the content of amino acids, caffeine, polyphenols, and total phenolics. The compounds, such as theaflavins (TFs) and thearubigins (TRs) were found to increase with fermentation, especially in stirring process. However, TF and TR reached a maximum, declining subsequently. Theaflavins and thearubigins are oxidation products of tea polyphenols, which are catalized by polyphenol oxidase when black tea is manufactured from freshly plucked green leaves. These are key compounds which contribute significantly to the colour and organoleptic characteristics of black tea infusions.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/36964
其他識別: U0005-1006201010163400
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1006201010163400
Appears in Collections:農藝學系

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.