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Synthesis of nanostructured carbon materials using commercial paper phenolic board
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A commercially available copper clad laminate (CCL) was used to synthesize the nanostructured carbon materials. Nanostructured carbon material included two types; one is carbon nanofiber (CNF) and the other is carbon nanosheet (CNS). The CCL is composed of an upper copper (Cu) layer and a bottom paper phenolic (PP) board. Using lithography and lift-off techniques, the Cu layer was patterned to a stripe-like Cu trace. By passing an electric current through the Cu trace, the Cu trace was heated due to Joule heating, and nanostructured carbon materials were formed on the PP board. Since the primary constituent of the PP board is phenol formaldehyde resin, the CNFs and CNSs are considered to be synthesized by the pyrolysis of phenol formaldehyde. At a location close to the Cu trace, the CNSs grew dominantly and they were constructed by lots of entwined filamentary carbon nanofibers. At a distant location from the Cu trace, the tubular CNFs became the primary product and their morphology is very straight. We also found that the nanostructured carbon materials can form on other substrate like Sn. Besides, we report a method to synthesize a peculiar composite structure of CNFs growing on a micro-sized Sn whisker. A Sn thin film was evaporated on the polymer board near the Cu trace. To release the residue stress resulted from the evaporation, Sn whiskers with a diameter of about 2 to 5 micrometer were formed on the Sn thin film during the subsequent storage. By passing an electric current through the Cu trace, the Cu trace was heated due to Joule heating and served as a heating source for the pyrolysis of phenol formaldehyde. After heat treatment, the CNFs grew on the surface of the Sn whiskers with a tubular hollow-cored structure. The diameter of the tubular CNFs is about hundreds of nanometers and their length can reach several micrometers. The growth mechanism of the brush-like composite structure is also discussed.
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