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Yield and quality of pitaya(Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose)as affected by fruiting regulation
increasing ground temperature
Yield and quality of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus Britt. &Rose) as affected by fruiting regulation Summary Teng-Wei Chang Field experiments were conducted from December of 2001 through December of 2002 to investigate the effects of pruning time, increasing ground temperature, extending light, and chemicals on fruiting regulation, fruit yield, and quality of pitaya. Field experiment was held at orchard in Agriculture Experimental Satation (AES; Wufeng, Taichung) of National Chung Hsing University (NCHU). The first part of experiment was four pruning time treatments (December 2001, January, February, and March 2002). Each treatment was conducted in the beginning of each month with 20 hill of pitaya plant as replications. The second experiment was modifying soil temperature and day length, which including increasing ground temperature (30℃), extending light (4hrs), increasing ground temperature with extending light, and control plot. Each treatment was conducted with 10 replications and were practiced from December 2001 to March 2002. The third experiment was chemicals, which including Hydrogen cyanamide, 2-Ethylene chlorohydrin, CaC2, and Ethrel. Chemicals were applied on areole and full cladodes four times at day (09:00-10:00AM) and night (22:00-23:00PM) respectively, in January 2002. Experimental design was conducted by completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 replications, each replication includes 4 unfruiting one-year old cladode and a young cladodes. The time flower buds emergence was investigated and recorded. Flower bud number, fruit number, fruiting cladodes and fruit yield were investigated. Sensory evaluation were also conducted to servey the quality of early-season, mid-season, and late-season fruits. Market prices and cost were also analyzed. The results of field experiments indicated that pitaya pruning at beginning of February had the highest flower buds, fruits, fruiting cladodes and fruit yield. Time of pruning had no significant effect on enhance earlier fruiting of pitaya, while increased ground temperature with extending light caused 32 days earlier fruiting, and also a higher averaged fruit weight and total fruit yield. Treatments of chemicals had no significant effects on inducing differentiation of flower bud. The production period were not affected. Pruning time significantly affected the proportions of fruit yield monthly from June to November. Experimental results indicated that pruning at beginning of February produced more early-season and late-season fruits with a higher market prices, and thus a higher profits than that pruning earlier or later. Results of sensory evaluation indicated that early-season fruits from pruning at beginning of February had the best quality, while pruning at beginning of March showed the poorest. Mid-season fruits had the best quality produced from treatment of pruning at beginning of January Late-season fruits produced from pruning at beginning of March showed the highest qualities, while that pruning at beginning of December showed the poorest. Increasing ground temperature with extending light treatment had the highest qualities pitaya fruits for all the season, thus improved income for farmers. According to the experimental results, it was suggested that it is the best time to prune the one year old cladodes of pitaya at beginning of February, which gained the best fruit yield and profit. Increasing ground temperature with extending light treatments enhanced pitaya fruiting 32 days earlier.
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