Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/37241
標題: 馬鈴薯試管內健康種苗生產之研究
The studies on propagating of healthy potato plants and micro tubers in vitro.
作者: 張義弘
Chang, Yih-Horng
關鍵字: Potato
馬鈴薯
Tissue culture
In vitro tuberization
組織培養
試管內結薯
出版社: 農藝學系
摘要: 試管內馬鈴薯由莖頂培養所獲得之無病毒植株,在試管內可以用單節扦插方式進行大量繁殖,亦可直接於試管內誘導結薯。現行之馬鈴薯繁殖體系無論是採扦插苗繁殖方式或是生產試管薯球方式均有品質不佳與繁殖效率不高之問題。試管內薯苗品質不良通常與培養條件不當有關;試管內薯球充實不良則與薯球誘發時間過長,薯球充實期間,培養基養分供應不當導致乾物質累積效率不佳有關。本研究目的即在探討試管內瓶苗品質與繁殖倍率是否可以經由調節瓶內二氧化碳濃度而加以改善,另針對試管內薯球生產,探討試管內薯球是否可以透過改善培養光照環境與調節培養基養分而提昇品質。 瓶苗繁殖試驗結果顯示,馬鈴薯試管內培植體在密閉組織培養瓶內培養時,瓶內二氧化碳濃度有過高現象,植株葉片結構異常且各項光合代謝指標如葉綠素含量Rubisco 酵素活性低下,可能是導致種苗品質不良之原因。培養瓶以680μLL-1二氧化碳或空氣通氣可改善植株葉片結構與Rubisco 活性,植株在此情況下生長有較佳之反應,繁殖倍率亦可明顯提昇。經移植於溫室生長後則可生產較高品質之種薯。 在試管內薯球生產方面,研究結果顯示,以瓶苗基部節位為培植體並採單節扦插方式培養於黑暗中,單節培植體之腋芽可直接被誘發結薯,因此在時間上薯球之誘發可提早至培養後10-12天內完成。試管內培植體在黑暗中培養比在光照下培養較容易誘發結薯。本研究亦證實Jasmonic acid在薯球誘發之效果,特別對高節位薯球之誘發尤為明顯。 在薯球充實過程中,本研究發現,現階段所造成薯球充實不良應是由於養分供應系統有所缺失所造成,薯球急速充實期時,培養基內蔗糖及N源濃度已有不足的可能。此外,培養基pH值亦降低至4.0左右,對養分之吸收應有不利影響。,薯球吸收蔗糖之速率比未經調整者有明顯提高現象。研究結果進一步發現,當培養基使用與MS培養基相同之低比值nitrate-ammonia時,培養基之蔗糖無法被薯球有效吸收與利用。提高nitrate-ammonia比值則可提昇蔗糖之吸收效率,薯球之充實亦有顯著之改善。本研究以階段式動態調節方式進行調整培養基內蔗糖含量與pH值以維持培養基內養分供應的持續性,結果證實此種調節方式可明顯的提高薯球充實能力。
The original source of potato index virus-free tubers can be obtained through either by in vitro nodual culture and /or by in vitro tuberization. In vitro potato mass propagation and tuberization system of have been established, however, the multiplication rate and seedling/microtuber quality were still need to improve. These phenomena could result from the lower carbon dioxide exchange rate of seedlings and / or inadequate nutrient supplies of medium. The main objective of this study was designed to examine whether changing the carbon dioxide concentration in culture vessel could influence seedling growth, multiplication rate during subculture and subsequent tuber production. For improving the in vitro tuber quality, this study was also designed to examine whether the tuber initiation could be shorten and dry mass accumulation can be enhanced by regulating the culture environment and medium nutrition during tuber development. It was found from this study that seedling photosynthesis in vitro tends to be considerably lower because of physiology stress, abnormal plant morphogenesis, or both. Carbon dioxide enrichment could change the leaflets structure, leaf chlorophyll content, soluble protein and Rubisco activity. These physiology improvements resulted in increase carbon dioxide exchange rate and multiplication rate. The plants derived from that grown on high carbon dioxide concentration environment also tend to produce larger and heavier tuber. In vitro tuberization experiments results showed that jasmonic acid in concentration of 2-6 ppm stimulated tuber formation. The enhancement of tuberization was position dependent and special note on the upper nodes. Under dark condition, the tuber could be induced within 10-12 day after culture by using basal-node segment as an explantlets and culture on medium containing jasmonic acid and high concentration sucrose. The results in this study also indicated that the lower weight of in vitro tubers was due to inadequate nutrition supply and pH environment of medium during tuber development. Tuber grown on high nitrate-ammonia medium exhibited higher rate of sucrose use and dry matter accumulation than tubers grown on lower nitrate-ammonia medium. Regulating the sucrose concentration when concentration was dropped to 30 % of initial, and/or adjusting pH value maintain at 5 during culture also enhanced the tuber dry matter accumulation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/37241
Appears in Collections:農藝學系

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