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Fabrication of Platinum Thin Film by Chemical Deposition and Its Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
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|摘要:||由瑞士學者M. Grätzel提出”染料敏化太陽能電池(Dye-sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC)”之設計概念，大幅地降低太陽能電池之製造成本，同時能量轉化效率值可達商業化使用之等級，因而引起廣泛之討論。染料敏化太陽能電池由染料敏化之二氧化鈦光電極、白金對電極、以及包含碘離子之電解質所組成。
以薄金屬片作為對電極之基材，與傳統使用之透明導電玻璃相比，金屬片具有較低的材料成本與十分優良之電子傳導特性。在銦錫氧化物導電玻璃(tin-doped indium oxide, ITO glass)與金屬基材(如：不鏽鋼、鎳)無電鍍白金應用於染料敏化太陽能電池，不同於傳統白金薄膜沈積方式，無電鍍具有低溫且製程簡易，在工業界易於大規模生產，這是傳統之濺鍍白金薄膜與熱裂解白金所無法做到的。
The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have attracted much attention in transferring clean solar energy to electricity because of their low cost, easy production and relatively high efficiency. A dye-sensitized solar cell generally composed of a dye-modified TiO2 photoelectrode, a Pt counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing a redox couple (I−/I3−) is an alternative device to conventional silicon solar cells. Sputtering is used to deposit a thin Pt layer on the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) glass. However, it is an ultrahigh vacuum process which is not cost efficient. Thermal deposition is also commonly employed to grow a thin Pt layer by spreading a drop of precursor solution on a TCO glass substrate, followed by annealing at 400℃. However, it requires a high-temperature annealing which restrains its further application in some temperature-sensitive substrates like plastic boards. Thin metallic sheets were also employed to serve as the substrates of counterelectrode for DSSCs. Compared with the commonly used TCO glass, metallic substrates have superiority in the material cost and electrical conduction capability. A platinum (Pt) layer was electroless-deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate and metal sheet as the counterelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. Compared with other methods of depositing Pt layer, electroless deposition is simple, low-temperature, and easy to scale-up for industrial application. Cells fabricated with a nickel sheet electroless-Pt counter electrode showed a higher conversion efficiency of 7.29% compared to cells fabricated with SUS304 sheet electroless-Pt (6.35%), ITO glass electroless-Pt (6.46%), and sputtered-Pt (5.58%) electrodes. This enhancement was attributed to increases in the effective surface area and good catalytic properties for I3− reduction. This DSSC also exhibits energy conversion efficiency better than that based on conventional sputtered Pt counterelectrode with a similar Pt loading even lower Pt loading. The promotion of cell efficiency is attributable to the porous structure of electroless-deposited Pt layer which can provide larger active surface area for triiodide reduction on the Pt/electrolyte interface.
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