Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/38015
標題: Reversible fragile watermarking scheme for three-dimensional models
作者: Wang, J.T.
喻石生
Wang, P.C.
Yu, S.S.
關鍵字: fragile watermarking
authentication
3-D models
principal component
analysis (PCA)
reversibility
tampering detection
point-sampled geometry
objects
期刊/報告no:: Optical Engineering, Volume 48, Issue 9.
摘要: Watermarking is a very important technique for protecting the authorization of digital content, such as still images, video streams, audio streams, and 3-D models. Most fragile watermarking schemes for 3-D models are not reversible. Published reversible or irreversible fragile watermarking schemes for 3-D models have many drawbacks, such as the causality problem, not being blind, or being unable to locate changed regions. To overcome these drawbacks, a reversible fragile watermarking scheme for 3-D models in spatial domain is proposed. Principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to produce the PCA coordinate system and make the system robust against similarity transformation attacks. PCA, together with a novel interval embedding technique, provide the blind reversibility of the proposed scheme. Intervals larger than a threshold and smaller than another threshold are adopted as legitimate to avoid large distortion. Moreover, experimental results show that the proposed scheme can overcome the causality, convergence, and confusion problems; provide both tampering detection and better embedding rate and requiring a small key size. (C) 2009 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. [DOI: 10.1117/1.3223635]
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/38015
ISSN: 0091-3286
文章連結: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3223635
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