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Numerical Prediction on the Erosion of the Hearth Bottom and Trough in the Blast Furnace by CFD Technology
Blast furnace hearth
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|摘要:||本研究主要分為兩個部份，第一個部分為碳質傳對於高爐爐下部爐床溶蝕之影響，以中鋼No.2高爐為模型並考慮鐵水與碳磚之間共軛熱傳導效應，以三維Navier-Stoke 層流動量方程式並搭配Ergun equation 描述流體多孔質內流動情況，與現場數據驗證以利建立較合理之濃度場，並以模擬之濃度場推算高爐爐床內不同條件下碳磚溶蝕速率。
而第二個部份為鐵水流道應力暫態分析，以k-ε紊流模式搭配VOF(Volume of fraction)法描述三相不互溶之流體，其中包含鐵水、爐渣與空氣。並在模式中考慮因界面張力不同產生之Marangoni 對流效應和爐渣固化效應，以三維暫態模式分析流道應力分佈並與現場侵蝕曲線比較。
(1) 我們成功地利用真實高爐作為模型搭配CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics)軟體(Fluent 6.2)預測高爐爐下部碳濃度分佈。
(3) 根據Fluent 6.2版所提供的VOF法本研究成功的用其描述鐵水流道中三相不互溶流體(鐵水、爐渣與空氣)的流動行為。
(4) 在本研究暫態計算過程中，可以觀察到鐵水流道中衝擊區的形成與發展，最後計算終點時衝擊區長度大約為6 m。|
There are two topics in this study. The first topic is the erosion of hearth bottom caused by mass transfer of carbon, which physical model is based on CSC (China Steel Cooperation) No.2 BF, and the conjugated heat transfer is considered. The three dimensional Navier-Stoke equation and Ergun equation were used to describe the behavior of flow in porous zone in the blast furnace hearth. In order to build a distribution of carbon concentration with different operating conditions, the simulative result was verified by on-line data. The other topic is the unsteady-state analysis of shear stress distribution in the blast furnace trough. The VOF (Volume of Fraction) and k-ε turbulent model were employed to simulate the three kinds of immiscible fluid, including liquid iron, slag, and air. In addition, the Marangoni effect caused by difference of interfacial tension was considered by CFS (Continuum Surface Force) model, and the solidification of slag was considered in this work. We analyzed the distribution of shear stress in the trough and compared with on-line data. In summary, we made some essential conclusions as follow: (1) We successfully established the numerical analysis which can predict the distribution of carbon in a blast furnace hearth by CFD software (Fluent 6.2). (2) As shown in the results, it is found that some operating factors, such as production and carbon concentration at mass-inlet, and the situations of deadman (i. e. the height of floating and the distribution of permeability in the deadman) would result in a different degree of erosion. (3) In this research, the VOF model provided by Fluent 6.2 was successfully applied to describe the three kinds of immiscible flow, including liquid iron, slag and air, with the consideration of Marangoni effect in the blast furnace trough. (4) According to the unsteady-state flow pattern obtained in this work, at the final stage, the location of impact region in the trough is about 6 m from the tape-hole of blast furnace hearth.
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