請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/45468
標題: A more accurate scheme for calculating Earth's skin temperature
作者: Tsuang, B.J.
莊秉潔
Tu, C.Y.
Tsai, J.L.
Dracup, J.A.
Arpe, K.
Meyers, T.
關鍵字: Air-sea interaction
Air-land interaction
Sea surface temperature
Land
surface temperature
Snow
Ice
Skin layer
Numerical discretization
PILPS
sensible heat
pilps 2(d)
surface
model
forest
implementation
simulations
prediction
hydrology
russia
期刊/報告no:: Climate Dynamics, Volume 32, Issue 2-3, Page(s) 251-272.
摘要: The theoretical framework of the vertical discretization of a ground column for calculating Earth's skin temperature is presented. The suggested discretization is derived from the evenly heat-content discretization with the optimal effective thickness for layer-temperature simulation. For the same level number, the suggested discretization is more accurate in skin temperature as well as surface ground heat flux simulations than those used in some state-of-the-art models. A proposed scheme ("op(3,2,0)") can reduce the normalized root-mean-square error (or RMSE/STD ratio) of the calculated surface ground heat flux of a cropland site significantly to 2% (or 0.9 W m(-2)), from 11% (or 5 W m(-2)) by a 5-layer scheme used in ECMWF, from 19% (or 8 W m(-2)) by a 5-layer scheme used in ECHAM, and from 74% (or 32 W m(-2)) by a single-layer scheme used in the UCLA GCM. Better accuracy can be achieved by including more layers to the vertical discretization. Similar improvements are expected for other locations with different land types since the numerical error is inherited into the models for all the land types. The proposed scheme can be easily implemented into state-of-the-art climate models for the temperature simulation of snow, ice and soil.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/45468
ISSN: 0930-7575
文章連結: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-008-0479-2
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