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標題: 應用於數位浮水印之快速籬笆知情嵌入法
Fast Trellis-Based Informed Embedding for Digital Watermarking Systems
作者: 洪鈺喬
Hong, Yu-Qiao
關鍵字: watermarking
data hiding
出版社: 通訊工程研究所
引用: [1] J. A. Bloom, I. J. Cox, T. Kalker, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, M. L. Miller, and C. B. S. Traw, "Copy protection for digital video," Proc. IEEE (Special Issue on Identification and Protection of Multimedia Information), vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1267-1276, Jul. 1999. [2] D. Boneh and J. Shaw, "Collusion-secure fingerprinting for digital data," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1897-1905, 1998. [3] D. Kundeur and D. Hatzinakos, "Digital watermarking for telltale tamper proofing and authentication," Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1167-1180, Jul. 1999. [4] F. Bartolini, A. Tefas, M. Barni, and I. Pitas, "Image authentication techniques for surveillance applications," Proc. IEEE, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 1403-1418, Oct. 2001. [5] E. Martinian and G. W. Wornell, "Authentication with distortion constraints," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, pp. 17-20, 2002. [6] I. J. Cox, M. L. Miller, and J. A. Bloom, Digital Watermarking, New York: Morgan Kaufmann, 2001. [7] M. H. M. Costa, "Writing on dirty paper," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 29, pp. 439-441, 1993. [8] M. L. Miller, G. J. DoAerr, and I. J. Cox, "Applying informed coding and embedding to design a robust high-capacity watermark," IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 792-807, Jun. 2004. [9] P. Moulin and R. Koetter, "Data-hiding codes," Proc. IEEE, vol. 93, no. 12, pp. 2083-2126, Dec. 2005. [10] M. L. Miller, G. J. DoAerr, and I. J. Cox, "Dirty-paper trellis codes for watermark," IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, vol. 2, pp. II-129-II-132, 2002. [11] I. J. Cox, M. L. Miller, and A. McKellips, "Watermarking as communications with side information," Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, pp. 1127-1141, Jul. 1999. [12] Y. Sun, Y. Yang, A. D. Liveris, V. Stankovic, and Z. Xiong, "Near-capacity dirty-paper code design: a source channel coding approach," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 3013-3031, Jul. 2009. [13] R. Barron, B. Chen, and G. W. Wornell, "The duality between informatino embedding and source coding with side informatino and some applicaitons," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1159-1180, May 2003. [14] S. S. Pradhan, J. Chou, and K. Ramchandran, "Duality bewteen source coding and channel coding and its extension to the side information case," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1181-1203, May 2003. [15] R. Zamir, S. Shamai, and U. Erez, "Nested linear/lattice codes for structured multierminal binning," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1250-1276, Jun. 2002. [16] M. J. Wainwright, "Sparse graph codes for side information and binning," IEEE Signal Processing Mag., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 47-57, Sep. 2007. [17] M. L. Miller, I. J. Cox, and J. A. Bloom, "Informed embedding:exploiting image and detector information during watermark insertion," in IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, Sep. 2000. [18] L. Lin, G. DoAerr, I. Cox, and M. Miller, "An ecient algorithm for informed embedding of dirty-paper trellis codes for watermarking," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, Italy, 2005. [19] C. K. Wang, G. DoAerr, I. J. Cox, "Toward a better understanding of dirty paper trellis codes," IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, vol. 2, pp. II233-II236, 2006. [20] G. D. Forney, "The Viterbi algorithm," Proc. IEEE, vol. 61, pp. 268-278, Mar. 1973.
摘要: 本篇論文中,我們提出一建構於籬笆結構上之快速知情數位浮水印,並將之分為知情編碼及知情嵌入兩塊探討,我們在知情嵌入部分提出了二種改進的演算法,此演算法可在512X512大小的灰階圖上嵌入1585位元大小的訊息,此系統架構結合了迴旋碼籬笆結構與線性區塊碼,我們能夠在此演算法中藉由調整參數得到所需之失真度及強健性,最後,我們比較不同演算法在固定失真度下的複雜度以及模擬不同的影像攻擊,如高斯雜訊、失真壓縮攻擊、低通濾波、縮放係數攻擊等,可發現我們提出之演算法其複雜度及強健性皆優於Miller所提出的方法。
This paper proposes a informed watermarking based on trellis structure, and divided into informed coding and informed embedding . We present two fast informed embedding algorithms for watermarking system. These algorithms are capable of embedding 1585 bits of message in an gray-level image of size 512X512 pixels. These algorithms employ the codewords of linear block code to label the arcs in the convolutional trellis. With this characteristic, we can easily adjust the fidelity and robustness of watermarked images by some controllable parameters. We report the robustness and complexity performance of these algorithms under the fixed fidelity in comparison with Miller''s. And we show the robustness results in Gaussian noise, lossy compression, low-pass filer and valumetric scaling. Moreover, the proposed algorithms not only has less complexity but also have better BER performance compared with Miller''s.
其他識別: U0005-1507201015565700
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