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A study on BTEX removal by titainium dioxide/carbon nanotubes composite membrane
|引用:||1.中文部分 王秀文，2006，陽離子對薄膜有機積垢之影響，碩士論文，國立交通大學環境工程研究所，新竹。 宋昭瑩，2008，鈣離子對 UF 薄膜有機積垢之影響，碩士論文，國立交通大學環境工程研究所，新竹。 張永信，2008，薄膜程序用於工業區廢水回收之研究，碩士論文，國立成功大學環境工程系，台南。 行政院環境保護署，毒性化學物質災害防救查詢系統，物質安全資料表。 行政院環境保護署，地下水污染管制標準，中華民國100 年2月10日行政院環境保護署環署土字第1000010141 號令修正發布第四條條文。 行政院環境保護署，2006，油品類儲槽系統土壤及地下水污染整治技術選取、系統設計要點與注意事項參考手冊。 2.西文部分 Afonso M. D. and Borquez, R. (2003) “Nanofiltration of wastewaters from the fish meal industry”, Desalination, Vol. 151, pp. 131–138. Alkhatim, H. S., Alcaina, M. I., Soriano, E., Iborra, M. I., Lora, J. and Arnal, J., (1998) “Treatment of whey effluents from dairy industries by nanofiltration membranes”, Desalination, Vol. 119, pp. 177–184. Alpatova, A., Verbych, S., Bryk, M., Nigmatullin, R. and Hila, N. (2004). “Ultraﬁltration of water containing natural organic matter: heavy metal removing in the hybrid complexation–ultraﬁltration process”, Separation and Puriﬁcation Technology, Vol. 40, pp. 155–162. Antoine, B., Balmann, R. D. and Lutin, F. 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|摘要:||本研究以奈米碳管(carbon nanotubes, CNTs)薄膜(CPMs)以及二氧化鈦(titanium oxide, TiO2)/CNTs複合薄膜(T-CPMs)進行水中苯、甲苯、乙苯、二甲苯(簡稱BTEX)過濾實驗，並於T-CPMs過濾時額外加入UV光照以降解過濾期間產生的積垢，使其成為具自淨功能之薄膜。研究中針對CNTs、TiO2複合材料之比例與操作壓力、溫度、初始濃度以及水中離子強度對去除率及通量比的影響進行討論。
研究結果顯示，CPMs中以10% CNTs含量(10-CPM)對BTEX之去除率最佳(皆大於81%)且過濾通量為10.21 L/m2-h。T-CPMs中以1% TiO2複合5% CNTs(T-5-CPM)對BTEX之去除率最佳(皆大於93%)，且經由UV光照後通量比從0.8回復至1.1，顯示T-5-CPM具高去除率與自淨之特性。以5-40 psi操作壓力範圍對10-CPM及T-5-CPM進行測試，當操作壓力為10 psi時，BTEX去除率皆大於80%以上，並保有較高的通量(9.28與6.22 L/m2-h)。不同溫度測試結果顯示溫度上升有助於通量的提升，但會使BTEX去除率下降。BTEX初始濃度增加會造成去除率與通量比下降，此因高濃度時會使分子擴散現象較顯著，同時薄膜表面積垢速率加快，而使通量比下降。離子強度的影響中，以100 mM NaCl 對去除率與通量比影響較大，此因水中離子會累積於膜孔與膜面所致。以10-CPM與T-5-CPM同時過濾BTEX混合溶液，於個別物質濃度為20與80 mg/L條件下，其去除率皆達80%以上，而大小順序則以X≅E>T>B，顯示大分子物質較具競爭優勢。
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) membranes (CPMs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2)/CNTs compositied membranes (T-CPMs) were prepared to study their separation performance of organic matters (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, abbreviated as BTEX) in an aqueous solution. UV irradiation on T-CPMs led to the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, which are accumulating on the membrane surface during filtration (self-cleaning). The influence of rejection and flux ratio under different conditions, such as ratio of composite, pressure, temperature, initial concentration and ionic strength were all conducted. The 10% content in CPMs (10-CPM) shows great rejection and flux, which was the optimum ratio. The 1% TiO2 with 5-CPM (T-5-CPM) possesses good rejection of BTEX, and flux ratio increased from 0.8 to 1.1 with UV irradiation. The results exhibit that rejection of 10-CPM and T-5-CPM were both above 80% under 10 psi where the flux was 9.2 8and 6.22 L/m2-h. The temperature effects indicate that increased temperature with increased flux ratio but decreased rejection. The results show an increasing concentration with decreased rejection and flux ratio which caused by the diffusion rate and fouling rate are more quickly than the lower concentration. The simultaneously experiments were carried out by 10-CPM and T-5-CPM. It shows excellent separation performance for BTEX removal from aqueous solution where rejection was up to 80%. The order of rejection is X≅E>T>B due to large molecules have competitive advantage. The influences of flux ratio for T-5-CPM with UV irradiation which display that flux ratio increased efficiently with increased temperature, moreover, it demonstrated that self-cleaning characteristic of membrane could be improved under high temperature. The results show that flux ratio was inversely proportional to initial concentration and ionic strength which caused by increased fouling rate and undegradable ions. The simultaneous experiments shows that flux ratio grow up to 0.9 with UV irradiation which exhibits fouling could be efficiently photodegradated. From the foregoing results, both of 10-CPM and T-5-CPM have good efficiency for BTEX removal. Therefore, these two types of membranes appear promising technologies for wastewater treatment.
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