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標題: 界面活性劑添加物應用於乾式洗滌塔串聯袋濾式集塵處理酸性氣體之研究
作者: 曾惠馨
關鍵字: incineration
dry scrubber
fabric filter
acid gas
出版社: 環境工程學系
摘要: 廢棄物焚化處理過程中硫氧化物及氮氧化物的排放,在進入大氣經化學反應及各種過程形成硫酸鹽與硝酸鹽之氣懸微粒,易為酸雨形成的主要先驅物(precursor)。因此,在環保標準日趨嚴格的今天,漸有一般廢棄物焚化處理廠採用乾式洗滌塔串聯袋濾式集塵器為其空氣污染防治設備。此控制設備的優點為操作維護簡易、不產生洗煙廢水;缺點則為生成較多之反應灰。 本研究即針對乾式洗滌塔在除酸反應過程中,吸收劑轉換率達極大值時亦正是反應速率為零之成因,利用界面活性劑的添加以延長除酸反應的進行。添加界面活性劑的目的有二:(1)增加氫氧化鈣粉體於煙道氣中的分散性,使其不因煙道環境中的濕度而凝聚。(2)藉由異質物種吸附於氫氧化鈣表面之行為,改變除酸反應環境以延緩非均相平衡(heterogeneous equilibrium)之發生。 本研究採用乾式洗滌塔整合袋濾式集塵器,探討添加界面活性劑於煙道中以氫氧化鈣作為吸收劑時對酸性氣體去除效率之影響,探討的變數有(1)界面活性劑種類(木質素磺酸鈣、木質素磺酸鈉、甲基奈磺酸鈉縮合物及β-奈磺酸鈉甲醛縮合物)和(2)酸性氣體組成(二氧化硫、氮氧化物及氯化氫)。 研究結果指出木質素磺酸鈣、木質素磺酸鈉、甲基奈磺酸鈉縮合物及β-奈磺酸鈉甲醛縮合物等四種界面活性劑添加物可有效控制焚化過程中酸性氣體的排放,惟不同添加物對不同酸性氣體之去除提升效果有所差異。整體而言以木質素磺酸鈉、β-奈磺酸鈉甲醛縮合物為添加物時對SO2、NOX的控制效果較好,氯化氫則因與氫氧化鈣反應性佳而不受影響;此外當煙道氣中有SO2、NOX、HCl等三種酸性氣體共存時亦會對控制結果產生加成或抑制的效果。
The serious environmental problems caused by SO2 and NOX emission from incineration processes into the atmosphere may become acidic gas' precursor, when they became sulfate and nitrate aerosol through chemical reaction or any kind of mechanism. In order to comply with severe environmental regulations, dry sorbent injection integrated with fabric filter as the air pollution control devices was applied in incineration process to eliminate acid gas in their flue gas. These technologies incorporate advantages both semi-dry and wet scrubber, but may result in huge solid waste generation. Base on sulfation' reaction rate becomes zero at the maximum conversion, the primary objective at present work is to use additive to extend the sulfation of Ca(OH)2. A dry scrubber integrated with fabric filter was employed to study the effect of surfactants on the removal efficiency of acid gas in the flue gas when Ca(OH)2 as sorbent. The parameters evaluated include (1) the different surfactants (calcium lignosulfonate, sodium lignosulfonate, alkyl naphthalene sodium sulfonate and b-naphthalene sodium sulfonate condensates) and (2) the composition of acid gas (SO2, NOX, HCl). The results showed that Ca(OH)2 adding surfactants(surface-active agent) could effectively decrease the emission of acid gas during incineration processes. Different additive had respective absorption efficiency on different acid gas. On the whole, sodium lignosulfonate and b-naphthalene sodium sulfonate condensates had better absorption efficiency on SO2 and NOX but not on HCl. Bedsides, when SO2 were coexisted with NOX and HCl, it will result in inhibition or embitterment efficiency.
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