Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5038
標題: 鯉魚潭淨水廠中快濾池去除水中藻類與藻類阻塞問題之模廠試驗研究
Algae removal and clogging through the rapid sand filter in Liyutan Water Ttreatment Plant;a piot study
作者: 陳伯壎
Po-, Hsuan-Chen
關鍵字: algae:filtration
藻類:過濾
piot study
模廠試驗
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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摘要: 台灣雖為一多雨的國家,但是由於地理環境與氣候條件的限制,使得可利用的水資源相當缺乏,因此政府廣建水庫以解決水源不足的問題。隨著社會的快速發展,人類的活動造成了河川湖泊的污染,而產生水體優養化的情形,當含有大量藻類的原水進入淨水程序後,會導致淨水效果下降,進而影響供水品質。 鯉魚潭淨水廠在2008年11月至12月與2009年03月發生藻類繁生,造成快濾池阻塞的嚴重問題,使得淨水廠快濾池濾程大幅縮減,為探討藻類阻塞濾床的問題,在鯉魚潭淨水廠二期淨水程序中設置了一個與實廠相近的快濾池模廠,可以模擬實廠實際操作情形,另外設置一組小型的快濾池模組,可探討高濃度含藻進流水對於濾床之影響。 水庫採樣結果,2010年度採樣結果10月份為藻類生長之高峰期,其中以針桿藻為主要優勢藻種,佔總藻類數量約90%,隨著季節的變化,藻類的種類與數量有明顯的改變,鯉魚潭水庫水質穩定,若無人為的污染,發生藻華與嚴重優養化之可能較低。淨水廠原水中藻類數量之多寡,與水庫水位與取水口之選擇有關。 模廠實驗結果,進入模廠的藻種與其所佔之比例大致上與水庫採樣結果類似,五次試程濁度去除效率皆維持80%以上,提升石英砂粒徑可有效減緩水頭損失之累積,而降低濾層厚度會使濁度去除率下降,有貫穿濾床的疑慮。試程在使用45 cm厚之濾層且提升石英砂粒徑之條件下操作,濁度去除率已經接近廠內操作限值,若再降低濾層恐有雜質貫穿的情形。 藻類分離純化結果,多為綠藻與藍綠菌,矽藻由於生長緩慢,因此藉由抹碟方式在一般培養條件下難以純化,分離結果得到四種較純的藻類分別為小球藻,柵藻,小環藻與顫藻。 模組實驗的結果,小球藻平均大小小於10 μm,因此容易貫穿濾層,水頭損失累積較少,小環藻有累積於表層與濾材交界面的情形,其細胞大小介於30至50 μm,顫藻的細胞大小大於200 μm以上,所以表層攔阻的情形明顯,且擁有最大的水頭損失累積。
Although the average rainfall in Taiwan is higher than lots of country, water resources in Taiwan are still significantly insufficient because of the landform and climate. To solve this problem, our government built reservoirs to supply sufficient water resource. Human activity caused serious eutrophication in our reservoirs and lots of algae growth rapidly in short-term, Algae were impacted the water treatment processes and reduced the quality of drinking water. Recently a large amount of algae has been found at specific periods (2008.11~12、2009.03)was set up in Li Yu Tan reservoir. Serious algae bloom accompanied rapid sand filter of water supply plant has been clogged. So water company has to raise the backwash frequency to assured the quality of effluent in water treatment processes. In this study, two rapid sand filter modules to simulate different operation conditions were constructed. The large module in Li Yu Tan water supply plant in order to simulate the operation of filtration processes. The small module was set up in laboratory and used to simulate the situation when influent contains large number of algae. In this investigation (2010.04~2011.04),The maximum concentration of algae was observed in October. The diatom was the predominant species in the reservoir. In different season, algae species change significantly with weather and temperature. In large rapid sand filter module, experiments were conducted under five operating conditions. The average removal efficiency of turbidity was higher than 80% in each case. Raising media diameter can reduce the head lost in the operational term. Other experiments determined that decreasing packed depth may reduce the turbidity removal rate. Isolation of predominant species in the reservoir is difficult because diatom growth slower than other green algae. In this study, four kind of algae were isolated. There were Cycotella sp.、Chlorella sp.、Oscillatoria sp. and Scenedesmus sp.. In small rapid sand filter module, The Oscillatoria sp. formed serious clogging in surface of filters and accumulated highest head lost about 53 cm in 8 hr. The Chlorella sp. accumulated lowest head lost about 40 cm in 8 hr and it is most easiest to breakthrough the filters into filtrate.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5038
其他識別: U0005-2208201111134500
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2208201111134500
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