Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/50598
標題: 美國帝國主義與另類亞美研究-菲裔美國文學中的性別、種族與帝國
The U.S.Imperialist Cultures and the Other Asian/America-Gender, Race, and Empire in Filipino American Literature
作者: 陳淑卿
關鍵字: 基礎研究
U
語文
美國帝國主義文化
菲美文學
帝國
國家
性別
性意識
酷兒離散
S
Imperialist Culture
Filipino American Literature
empire
nation
gender
sexuality
queer diaspora
摘要: This three-year project proposes to expand the scope of mainstream AsianAmerican studies by examining Filipino American literature on the basis of ahistorical investigation of U.S. imperialism and its related cultural studies. By U.S.imperialism, I refer to the U.S. “liberation”of the Philippines, Cuba, and Porto Ricofrom the Spanish empire after the 1898 Spanish-AmericanWar, only to subject theseterritories into a form of “self-rule”governed by the master's will—what is oftenreferred to as “benevolent assimilation.” This particular form of colonizationreplaces the country's nation-building with cultural Americanization, which workshand in hand with global capitalism to enforce a Foucauldian governmentality uponthe everyday life practice of Filipino American. Since the ideology of empire,nation and race are often coded through gender and sexuality, this project attempts toilluminate the imperialist oppression, the difficulty of nation-building, and theimpossibility of racial formation through the analytic of gender and sexuality inpostcolonial Filipino American diaspora. Working along and against a stereotypicalrecognition of the hypersexual “Filipino American,”this work calls attention to thederogative effect racialized masculinity of U.S. nationalism and imperialism havebrought to the colonized, diasporic gendered, sexual bodies, and the truncated familyromance, thwarted domestic space established around those bodies. The results ofmultiple colonialization can be seen through diaspora, exile, subject uncertainty, andthe lack of a distinctive national culture. But more importantly, it is those disruptedprivate spheres, and troubled gender positions that have been coded as the sites toreveal as well as criticize imperialist violence and global capitalism. In themeantime, the lack of an integral racial and cultural subjectivity and the absence of anational origin are often displayed and examined through disrupted masculinity,misrecognized femininity, and the uncertainty of homosexualilty. The thrust of myproject lies in the belief that uncertainty and fragmentation might instigateborder-crossing and unleash political critique against uniformity and normality thatsustain the dominant regimes.The first year: Empire, Race, Sexuality: On Two BildungsromansCarlos Bulosan's America is in the Heart and Peter Bacho's Cebu are twobildungsromans which trace the two heroes'transpacific journey from theperspective of either sexual suppression or sexual awakening as a way to exploretheir different relationships with empire and nation. As the core of Spanishimperialist religious practice, celibacy and innocence serves to structure Bacho'smain character's sexual/racial subjectivity, causing his historical amnesia for the U.S. imperialist history. Bulosan's character's sexual awakening to heterosexualmasculinity brings to his attention the violence of the imperialist gaze on thecolonized bodies.The second year:Women in Transit between nation and empireJessica Hagedorn's three novels, Dogeaters, Dream Jungle, Gangsters of Love, willbe read together to explore the mixed-race, mixed-culture Filipino Americanwomen's strategies of cultural translation among multiple cultural discourses,including imperialist, revolutionary, dialects, Hollywood cinematic, gossip andtableau discourses.The third year: Queer Diaspora and Passing in Filipino American LiteratureI read R. Zamora Linmark's Rolling the R's and Han Ong's Fixer Chao from theperspective of homosexuality, and its multiple relativity with empire, nation, andmainstream Asian America. Homosexuality is presented less as a target of imperial,capitalist violence than as a floating position with fluid racial, sexual, performativity,calling into question the normative sexual difference undergirding nation, empire,the white society, and mainstreamAsian America.
本三年計畫以美國帝國主義文化的探討為背景,以擴大並解構主流亞美研究,開發另類亞美研究觀點為終極目標,以性別、種族、國家、地理範疇的互相製碼為研究方法,嘗試析論九零年代菲美文學所展現的跨太平洋遷移、性別/性意識與國家、家庭與帝國、酷兒離散等議題。美國帝國主義在此一方面指美國自1898 年美西戰爭之後,在太平洋、拉丁美洲與加勒比海,對菲律賓、波多黎各、古巴等前西班牙殖民國家,進行的解放與再殖民,其特徵在假「善意同化」之名,行殖民治理之實,標舉自由民主的大旗,以美國帝國主義文化,替換前殖民地的國家建立。另一方面,美國帝國主義文化又與全球資本主義陳倉暗渡,互為表裡,對菲律賓及其他的前殖民地人民進行傅科所謂的內在治理。多重殖民的結果不僅展現在菲美族裔的飄零、離散及身份匱乏,更耐人尋味的是,帝國殖民壓迫往往透過性別製碼,和家庭關係來透露端倪,並反覆塗寫於亞太跨國資本主義的慾望地圖,使得性別、性意識、慾望、女性、家庭等私有空間的倫理趨力,成為帝國主義,及全球資本主義演出的場所。而離散議題、國家建立的困境、菲美社群的邊緣處境,也往往透過家庭羅曼史、父權及男性氣概的失落、女性的跨國遷移及文化雜燴、及同志情慾的不穩定結構來呈現,或開展批判。本計畫立論的出發點,乃在化菲/美文化歷經多重殖民,而欠缺穩定、單一、同質種族及文化結構的劣勢為批判、或跨界的動能。茲簡述三年計畫如下:第一年: 帝國、種族、性意識: 論兩部成長小說。卡羅斯‧布洛桑的《美國在我心》(CarlosBulosan, America is in the Heart),和彼得‧巴喬的成長小說《宿霧》(PeterBacho, Cebu)都以男主角的跨國成長之旅為敘述主軸,也分別以性意識的壓抑或追尋,來展現角色與帝國的關係。《宿霧》以天主教的童真觀念,作為西班牙殖民論述的主軸,書中的角色受到殖民主的宗教洗禮,為追求純真而性壓抑,一併拒絕了認知菲律賓的美國殖民歷史。《美國在我心》的主角在美國的性啟蒙,同時讓他認知到男性氣概所連結的殖民者凝視的暴力。第二年: 女性、帝國、國家、跨國遷移: 從後殖民女性主義,及跨國女性遷移的角度來閱讀潔西卡‧海格彤(Jessica Hagedorn)的三部小說:《吃狗肉的人》(Dogeaters)、《愛情幫派份子》(Gangster of Love)、《夢叢林》(Dream Jungle)。海格彤的小說中的女性角色往往游移於多種文化之間,她們既是國家男性氣概失落的暴力犧牲者,但由於其文化雜燴和多重的地理遷移,反而可以在幾種不同的文化論述經緯(包括帝國殖民論述、本土革命語彙、好萊塢電影、搖滾文化、及街坊流言、小道消息、八卦新聞)中,開闢文化翻譯的途徑。第三年:酷兒離散與菲美文學的身份越界:以查莫納‧林馬的《捲舌音》(R. ZamoraLinmark, Rolling the R’s),及王瀚的《風水大師》(Han Ong, Fixer Chao)對菲裔同志情慾的描寫為切入點,來討論菲裔社群與帝國、及主流亞美社群的多重關係。林馬和王瀚小說中同志情慾不是帝國及資本主義暴力的結果,反而是挑戰帝國主義或亞美階級關係的發聲位置。它代表多重而浮動的性慾主體位置,可以同時批判國家和帝國,白人社會與亞美主流。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/50598
其他識別: NSC98-2410-H005-047
文章連結: http://grbsearch.stpi.narl.org.tw/GRB/result.jsp?id=1869710&plan_no=NSC98-2410-H005-047&plan_year=98&projkey=PE9807-0999&target=plan&highStr=*&check=0&pnchDesc=%E7%BE%8E%E5%9C%8B%E5%B8%9D%E5%9C%8B%E4%B8%BB%E7%BE%A9%E8%88%87%E5%8F%A6%E9%A1%9E%E4%BA%9E%E7%BE%8E%E7%A0%94%E7%A9%B6---%E8%8F%B2%E8%A3%94%E7%BE%8E%E5%9C%8B%E6%96%87%E5%AD%B8%E4%B8%AD%E7%9A%84%E6%80%A7%E5%88%A5%E3%80%81%E7%A8%AE%E6%97%8F%E8%88%87%E5%B8%9D%E5%9C%8B
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