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標題: Application of curdlan and waxy corn starch on the development of soft tofu with freezing resistance
作者: 陳建富
Chen, Jian-Fu
關鍵字: 嫩豆腐
soft tofu
waxy corn starch
texture profile analysis
response surface methodology
出版社: 食品科學系
摘要: Soft tofu, because of its high moisture content, is liable to deterio-ration and possesses no freezing resistance. Since its texture becomes sponge-like after freezing, this makes it inconvenient in production, transportation, consumption, and storage. Curdlan could effectively en-hance the freezing resistance, and waxy corn starch, on the meanwhile, could improve the water holding capacity. A smooth and soft texture might be remained after frozen storage, and freeze-dried soft tofu with good qualities could also be obtained by using curdlan and waxy corn starch. Freezing resistance and water holding capacity was affected sig-nificantly by concentrations of both curdlan and waxy corn starch applied. Therefore, effects of curdlan (0~2 %), waxy corn starch (0~4 %), and coagulant (0.2~0.4 %) concentrations on soft tofu by using response surface methodology (RSM) was examined in this study in order to obtain a soft tofu with freezing resistance. In the respect of freeze-drying, freezing temperature (-5~-45℃) would be combined with those three above-mentioned conditions to develop a product with good qualities and to expand the applicability of soft tofu in modern foods. The results indicated that soft tofu made from curdlan 0.3 %, glucono-d-lactone 0.3 %, and waxy corn starch 3.6 % had good physical properties (such as gel strength, water holding capacity, and texture profile analysis) and sensory evaluation, after the experiements of without freezing, freeze- thawing, and frozen storage. As to freeze-drying, the optimum processing condi-tion was found to be curdlan 2 %, glucono-d- lactone 0.3 %, waxy corn starch 4 %, and freezing temperature -45℃, and the products were more acceptable to the taste panel. Keywords : soft tofu, curdlan, waxy corn starch, texture profile analysis (TPA), response surface methodology (RSM), freeze-drying, freezing, frozen storage
嫩豆腐水分含量高,甚易腐敗,而且不具抗凍性,冷凍貯藏後會形成 海綿狀的質地,喪失嫩豆腐所特有的質感,因此造成產銷及貯藏、消費上 的許多不便。Curdlan與糯玉米澱粉能有效地提高嫩豆腐的抗凍性與保水 性,在冷凍、解凍後仍能保持良好質地,有助於得到品質優良的冷凍乾燥 嫩豆腐。Curdlan及糯玉米澱粉的添加濃度為影響抗凍性及保水性的重要 因子,因此本研究利用反應曲面法(RSM)對嫩豆腐製程中所用curdlan濃 度(0~2%)、糯玉米澱粉濃度(0~4%)及凝結劑濃度(0.2~0.4%)進行探討 ,嘗試開發具抗凍性的嫩豆腐。在冷凍乾燥方面,除前述所用三個因子外 ,再配合上預備凍結溫度(-5~-45℃)進行探討,嘗試開發具良好品質的冷 凍乾燥嫩豆腐,以拓展嫩豆腐在現代化食品中的應用性。結果指出以 curdlan濃度0.3%、葡萄糖酸-d-內酯濃度0.3%及糯玉米澱粉濃度3.6% 所製成之嫩豆腐,經過未凍結、凍結解凍及凍結貯藏三項試驗後,其凝膠 強度、保水率、質地輪廓分析(TPA)等物理性質及官能性狀均有不錯的品 質。在冷凍乾燥方面,發現最適加工條件為:curdlan濃度2%、葡萄糖 酸-d-內酯濃度0.3%、糯玉米澱粉濃度4%及預備凍結溫度-45℃,此條件 組合下所製得之冷凍乾燥製品較為品評員們所接受。關鍵字:嫩豆腐、 curdlan、糯玉米澱粉、質地輪廓分析、反應曲面 法、冷凍乾燥 、冷凍、冷凍貯藏
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系



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