Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/51581
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dc.contributor.advisor陳錦樹zh_TW
dc.contributor.author劉詩瑋zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorLiou, Shih-Weien_US
dc.contributor.other中興大學zh_TW
dc.date2009zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-06T08:54:31Z-
dc.date.available2014-06-06T08:54:31Z-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/51581-
dc.description.abstractGalla chinensis (GAC) is a traditional Chinese herb distributed widely in southern China. It is used for the treatment of inflammation, dysentery, toxicosis, sore and so on. GAC is the gall produced by some parasitic aphids (family Pemphigidae) on the Rhus leaves of the family Anacardiaceae ﹝mainly Rhus chinensis Mill, Rhus potaninii Maxim, and Rhus punjabensis var. sinica (Diels) Rehd. et Wils﹞. Tannins (commonly referred to as tannic acid, TA) are water-soluble polyphenols that are present in many plant foods. GAC contains a large amount of gallotannin, a typical kind of hydrolysable tannin, even exceeding 70% of its weight. TA is considered to be a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) food additive, which may be present from 10 to 400 ppm. Tannase (E.C.3.1.1.20) can catalyze the hydrolysis of ester and depside bonds in hydrolysable tannins such as gallotannin, and releases gallic acid and glucose. Gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a naturally occurring antioxidant and antibacterial agent. Compared with gallotannin, gallic acid has lower cell toxicity and has more applications in agriculture and industry. In this study, an extracellularly tannase-producing fungus strain, Aspergillus oryzae NCH 42, was used.Changes in functional property of GAC after the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Asp. oryzae NCH 42 were studied. Results showed that, optimal condition for enzymatic hydrolysis of GAC water extract performed at 35 ℃, pH 5.5, shaking rate at 50 rpm and the tannase activity at 400U gave the best result for release of gallic acid and residual tannc acid content. On the other hand, optimal conditions for fermentation of GAC by A. oryzae NCH 42 were as follows: solid to water ratio at 1:30, temperature at 35 ℃, shaking rate at 120 rpm, initial pH at 5.0 and spore concentration of inoculum was 107 spores/ml. The results of antioxidant properties showed that enzymatic hydrolysates prepared by reacting GAC with tannase for 20 minutes (EH-20) had highest antioxidant activities during enzymatic hydrolysis, while antioxidant properfies of fermentation products after the fermentation for 3 days (F-3) were the highest. The F-3 shows better scavenging activity and reducing power than EH-20 did. The EH-0 and F-0 have highest antibacterial properties. All samples showed stronger antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacterial strains. Antibacterial properties of GAC decreased during enzymatic hydrolysis or fermentation. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of GAC after enzymatic hydrolysis or fermentation decreased ;however, enzymatic hydrolysates had higher inhibitory activity. The GAC after enzymatic hydrolysis or fermentation increased the cell viability of RAW 264.7 cell and Clone 9 cell, but decreased the cell viability of HepG2 cell. The GAC after fermentation or tannase treatment had effects on decresing the generation of NO by RAW 264.7 cells, and lowering the amount of NO produced in the presence of LPS. This indicated that the GAC after enzymatic hydrolysis or fermentation had increased anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, cytotoxicity of the GAC extract decreased after fermentation or tannase treatment, and the functionality increased.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents目次 中文摘要 I Abstract II 圖目次 IX 表目次 XIV 壹、前言 1 貳、文獻回顧 3 一、 五倍子之簡介 3 (一)產地 3 (二)五倍子形成和形態 3 (三)五倍子之功用 4 (四)五倍子之組成份 4 (五)五倍子之機能性 6 1.預防齟齒 6 2.抑菌 10 3.抗發炎 11 4.治療糖尿病 11 5.抗氧化 12 6.美白 13 7.抗病毒 13 8.抗癌 14 二、單寧 14 (一)單寧之簡介 14 (二)單寧之分類 17 1.黃烷醇類(flavanol): 17 2.水解型單寧(hydrolysable tannin) 17 3.縮合型單寧(condensed tannin) 17 (4)複合型單寧( complex tannin) 18 (三)單寧之機能性 23 1.抑菌 23 2.抗癌 24 3.抗氧化 24 4.抗病毒 24 5.抗過敏 25 6.其他 27 三、沒食子酸 27 (一)沒食子酸簡介 27 (二)沒食子酸之製作方法 28 (三)沒食子酸之應用 28 1.抗氧化 30 2.抗發炎 30 3.抗癌 30 4.抗微生物 31 5.抗病毒 31 6.抗突變 32 7.其他 32 四、單寧酶 32 (一) 單寧酶之簡介 32 (二)單寧酶之應用 33 表三 單寧酶應用之相關專利發表 37 (三)單寧酶之安全性 38 參、材料與方法 39 (壹)、實驗材料 39 一、實驗樣品 39 二、化學藥品 39 三、儀器設備 39 四.套裝軟體 40 (貳)、實驗設計 40 (參)、實驗項目 42 一、黴菌菌種保存與活化 42 二、孢子懸浮液的製備 42 三、粗酵素的製備 42 四、五倍子水萃物的製備 42 1.萃取水量 42 2.萃取溫度和時間 42 五、以Asp. oryzae NCH 42部份純化單寧酶處理五倍子水萃物之較適條件探討 43 1.酵素活性和反應時間 43 2.酵素作用溫度 43 3.酵素作用pH 43 4.酵素作用震盪速率 43 5.酵素處理樣品製備 43 六、以Asp. oryzae NCH 42發酵五倍子之培養條件較適化探討 44 1.較適水量 44 2. 較適培養溫度 44 3. 較適震盪速率 44 4. 較適起始pH 44 5.較適孢子接種量 44 6.以較適條件發酵五倍子 44 (肆)、分析方法 45 一、單寧水解酵素活性之測定 45 二、單寧含量測定 46 三、pH值之測定 47 四、多酚化合物HPLC分析 47 五、抗氧化力分析 47 1. DPPH自由基捕捉能力測定 47 2.還原力之測定 48 3.總抗氧化力 48 4.螯合亞鐵離子能力之測定 49 六、抑菌能力測定 49 七、不溶性多醣含量之測定 51 八、抑制酪胺酸酶活性測定 52 九、細胞培養 53 十、細胞存活率測定(cell viability) 55 十一、一氧化氮(NO)濃度測定 55 (伍)統計分析和圖形繪製 56 肆、結果與討論 57 (壹)五倍子水萃物之萃取條件與製備 57 1.萃取水量 57 2.萃取溫度和時間 57 (貳)以Asp. oryzae NCH 42之單寧酶粗酵素處理五倍子水萃物較適條件探討 61 1.酵素活性和反應時間 61 2. 酵素作用溫度 64 3.酵素作用pH值 64 4.酵素作用震盪速率 70 5. Asp. oryzae NCH 42之部分純化單寧酶以較適條件作用五倍子水萃物 70 (參)以Asp. oryzae NCH 42發酵五倍子之培養條件較適化探討 79 1. 基質濃度 79 2.培養溫度 82 3.震盪速率 85 4.起始pH 85 5.孢子接種源濃度 86 6.以五倍子為基質以較適條件培養Asp. oryzae NCH 42 86 (肆)探討酵素作用對五倍子水萃物及五倍子經Asp. oryzae NCH 42發 酵後機能性之變化 100 ㄧ.抗氧化力 100 1.捕捉DPPH自由基能力之測定 100 2.還原力之測定 107 3.總抗氧化力 112 4螯合亞鐵離子 117 二.抗菌試驗 122 1.抑菌性試驗 122 2.最小抑菌濃度試驗 123 3.酵素及發酵處理對Stept. mutans產不溶性胞外多醣之影響 129 三、酵素及發酵處理對抑制酪胺酸酶活性之影響 132 1.抑制酪胺酸酶活性 132 2.酵素動力學試驗 132 四、酵素及發酵處理對細胞存活率之影響 141 五、酵素組和發酵組對RAW 264.7細胞NO產生之影響 150 1.對RAW 264.7細胞NO產量之影響 150 2.酵素組和發酵組對降低脂多醣刺激RAW 264.7細胞之影響 155 伍、結論 162 陸、參考文獻 163zh_TW
dc.language.isoen_USzh_TW
dc.publisher食品暨應用生物科技學系所zh_TW
dc.subjectGalla chinensisen_US
dc.subject五倍子zh_TW
dc.subjectTannaseen_US
dc.subjectTanninen_US
dc.subjectGallic aciden_US
dc.subjectAspergillus oryzaeen_US
dc.subject單寧酶zh_TW
dc.subject單寧zh_TW
dc.subject沒食子酸zh_TW
dc.subjectAspergillus oryzaezh_TW
dc.titleEffect of fermentation or its tannase by Aspergillus oryzae NCH 42 on functional properties of Galla rhoisen_US
dc.title五倍子經Aspergillus oryzae NCH 42 發酵或其單寧酶處理對其機能性之影響zh_TW
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系
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