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標題: Effects of color extraction methods and pectic enzyme pretreatment of must on the production of red wines
作者: 張世界
Chang, Shih-Chieh
關鍵字: Black Queen
direct (with skin) fermentation process
juice fermentation after hot extraction process
出版社: 食品科學系
摘要: 中文摘要 紅葡萄酒因富含花青素外觀呈現紅艷亮麗的顏色,其花青素則來自紅葡萄果皮。本研究目的在於探討二種傳統之紅葡萄酒製造法中,何者較能使果皮所含的色素和香味物質有效地溶出,以提昇紅葡萄酒品質;及添加果膠分解酵素對於增加果汁收得率和酒液澄清的影響。包括比較直接(連皮)發酵法和加熱抽出後果汁發酵法對紅葡萄酒品質的影響,及決定省產黑后紅葡萄色素溶出最適加熱溫度和果膠分解酵素(Ultrazyme 100)最適添加濃度。 黑后紅葡萄經除梗、破碎、粗濾後的葡萄汁添加不同濃度(0-20ppm)果膠分解酵素,室溫下作用18小時,測定抽氣過濾體積和濾液果膠殘留量,結果發現經5.0ppm處理者,果汁濾液顯著增加,澄清果汁達43.3mL/100mL,且濾液內果膠皆已完全分解無沉澱發生。 黑后紅葡萄除梗破碎後之果漿以25~85℃加熱抽出色素,分別測定波長在420nm和520nm下之吸光度、色度比、總色素含量,結果以加熱65℃者最適當。其色度比(A420/A520)為0.59,總色素958mg/L(以花青素表示)。色度比偏低,顯示果汁未受加熱氧化,且顏色鮮艷,表示果皮色素幾乎已全被抽出。 直接(連皮)發酵法與加熱抽出後果汁發酵法製得之紅葡萄酒成品,以九分法為評分標準,經品酒員品評結果,不論色澤、香氣、風味及總評都無明顯差異,且分數在7-8分,表示兩種成品都喜歡,顯示兩種方法都適用於紅葡萄酒製造。但進一步成分分析,成品酒甲醇含量,前法為211.64mg/L,後法為59.32mg/L;色素抽時間,前法為4-5天,後法僅需數小時。故若僅以甲醇含量低,色素抽出時間短等因素考量時,以加熱抽出後果汁發酵法較有利於紅葡萄酒品質。 關鍵字:黑后紅葡萄、花青素、果膠分解酵素、直接(連皮)發酵法、加熱抽出後果汁發酵法、果膠、果漿、甲醇。
Abstract The red color of red wine appears attractive and brilliant due to content of anthocyanins from grape skins. In this study, the effects of coloring and flavoring matters extraction on improving red wine quality of red-wine making were examined. In addition, the effects of adding pectinase to increase the yield of must and clarification of wine were also investigated. The direct (with skin) fermentation and juice fermentation after hot extraction, and the optimal temperature of hot extraction and dosage of pectinase (Ultrazyme 100) used in the later process were studied. Different dosages(0~20ppm) of pectinase were added to the crushed, destemmed and pre-filtered must, Black Queen. After 18 hrs, the volumes and residual pectin of the filtrate by air-suction filter were measured. The volume of filtrate which 5.0ppm of pectinase added was 43.3mL/100mL, and no residual precipitated pectin was found. The crushed and destemmed must, Black Queen, was heated from 25 to 85℃ for extraction of red pigments. The absorbance at 420nm, 520nm of wave length, hue (A420/A520) and total pigments were detected, respectively. It showed that the must heated to 65℃ resulted in 0.59 of hue, and 958 mg/L (as anthocyanins) of total pigments. The red color appeared attractive and brilliant. Meanwhile, the pigments were extracted almost completely without oxidation in hot extraction process. Wines made by direct fermentation process and those by hot extraction process were assessed by sensory evaluation using 9-point scale. It showed that there were no significant differences in color, flavor, taste and overall quality of the wines. Both processes are supposed to be appropriate for red-wine making. Further analysis showed content of methanol in wine made by direct fermentation was 211.64mg/L while that made by hot extraction was 59.32mg/L. The pigment-extraction time required was 4~5 days for direct fermentation, but only several hours for hot extraction one. For the sake of low methanol or short extraction time, the hot extract process seems more appropriate to the good quality of red —wine making. Key words: Black Queen, anthocyanins , pectinase, direct (with skin) fermentation process, juice fermentation after hot extraction process, pectin, must, methanol.
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系



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