Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/51796
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dc.contributor.advisor毛正倫zh_TW
dc.contributor.advisorJeng-Leun Mau, Ph.D.en_US
dc.contributor.author黃薺緯zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Gi-Weien_US
dc.date2003zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-06T08:54:56Z-
dc.date.available2014-06-06T08:54:56Z-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/51796-
dc.description.abstract菇類之子實體和菌絲體可用來做為食品、調味料、特殊化學物質的生產 (如水溶性多醣) 及醫療用物質的生產 (如抗生素、抗癌藥物和抗病藥物)。金頂側耳是台灣近年來新興的一種食用菇,本研究係針對金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體及發酵液進行一般成分、呈味特性、抗氧化和抗致突變性之分析。 子實體和菌絲體主要由碳水化合物(30.87-45.82%)及蛋白質(25.99-29.50%)組成,亦含有高量之粗纖維(13.80-18.03%),而發酵液主要的組成分是碳水化合物(78%)。在呈味上子實體主要的可溶性糖及有機酸為為甘露糖醇和琥珀酸,子實體和菌絲體在總胺基酸含量上並無顯著性差異而遠大於發酵液,子實體、菌絲體及發酵液之脂肪酸,主要由亞麻油酸構成,在揮發性成分方面,子實體及菌絲體主要成分為2-pentyl furan、1-octanol及1-octen-3-ol。在游離胺基酸、核甘酸及有機酸含量上子實體明顯大於菌絲體及發酵液。 金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體及發酵液乙醇萃取物在抗氧化力部分,於20 mg/ml時,依序為子實體(87.91%)>菌絲體(79.00%)>發酵液(64.78%)。還原力部分,金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體和發酵液萃取物在10 mg/ml時,分別為1.06、0.62和1.05。金頂側耳子實體(95.85%)、菌絲體(92.78%)及發酵液(99.93%)之乙醇萃取物在20 mg/ml時,具有極佳的補捉DPPH自由基的能力,補捉能力較熱水萃取物佳。金頂側耳乙醇萃取物並不具清除羥自由基能力,在螯合亞鐵離子方面於20 mg/ml時,子實體(75.67%)和菌絲體(74.95%)無顯著差異,而大於發酵液(22.28%)。 金頂側耳熱水和冷水萃取物其抗氧化效果類似,金頂側耳熱水及冷水萃取物在抗氧化性上是以子實體>菌絲體>發酵液。子實體、菌絲體及發酵液水萃取物在清除羥自由基及螯合亞鐵離子能力上較乙醇萃取物佳,在抗氧化成分分析上,總酚類化合物是所有試驗樣品中含量最多的天然抗氧化成分。 本試驗使用安氏試驗法,以Salmonella typhimurium TA98 和TA100為測試菌株,探討金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體及發酵液熱水萃取物之抗致突變性。結果顯示在0.1-5.0 mg/plate的添加濃度範圍,TA98和TA100均不具毒性及致突變性。金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體及發酵液熱水萃取物在試驗範圍內皆具抗致突變性,其中以金頂側耳發酵液熱水萃取物在 TA98和TA100測試系統中對NQNO和B[a]P 抗突變效果最佳。 綜此,可知金頂側耳除含有豐富的營養成分外,尚具備抗氧化及抗致突變性,本試驗結果可作為開發保健食品之參考依據。 關鍵字:金頂側耳、呈味特性、抗氧化、抗致突變性zh_TW
dc.description.abstractMushroom fruit bodies and mycelia can be used as foods and food flavoring, to produce specifically chemical and medical substances, such as water soluble polysaccharides as well as pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics, anticancer and antidisease drugs. Pleurotus citrinopileatus Sing is a new edible fungi in Taiwan recently. The objectives of this research were to investigate the proximate composition, taste quality, antioxidant properties and antimutagenic effect of Pleurotus citrinopileatus fruit bodies, mycelia and fermented broth. Carbohydrate (30.87-45.82%) and protein (25.99-29.50%) were major components and crude fibers (13.80-18.03%) in fruit bodies and mycelia. In fermented broth, carbohydrate was the major components (78%). In fruit bodies, mannitol was major soluble sugars. Fruit bodies had more succinic acids in orgainic acids assay. Fruit bodies were similar in total amino acid to mycelia higher than fermented broth. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid in fruit bodies, mycelia and fermented broth. In flavor volatiles, 2-pentyl furan, 1-octanol and 1-octen-3-ol were the major volatile of fruit bodies and mycelia. Fruit bodies might have the highest palatable taste than mycelia and fermented broth in 5''''''''-nucleotides, orgainic acids and free amino acid assay. The antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were in the order Pleurotus citrinopileatus, fruit bodies (87.91%) > mycelia (79.00%) > fermented broth (64.78%) at 20 mg/ml. The reducing powers of ethanol extracts were 1.06, 0.62 and 1.05 at 10 mg/ml for fruit bodies, mycelia and fermented broth, respectively. The ethanol extracts from fruit bodies (95.85%), mycelia (92.78%) and fermented broth (99.93%) showed an excellent scavenging effect on DPPH than hot extracts at 20 mg/ml. Ethanol extracts didn´t show an excellent scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals. The chelating effect on ferrous ions of ethanol extracts were in the order Pleurotus citrinopileatus, fruit bodies (75.67%) ≈ mycelia (74.95%) > fermented broth (22.28%)at 20 mg/ml. Hot water extracts were similar in antioxidant properties to cold water extracts. Antioxidant properties of Pleurotus citrinopileatus were studied in the form hot water and cold water extracts, fruit bodies > mycelia > fermented broth. The water extracts from fruit bodies, mycelia and fermented broth showed an excellent scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals and chelating effect on ferrous ions than extracts from ethanol. Total phenols were the major naturally occurring antioxidant components found in all samples. The antimutagenicity of hot water extraxts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus fruit bodies, mycelia and fermented broth was investigated by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. No toxicity and mutagenicity were found in hot water extraxts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus at the dose of 0.1-5.0 mg/plate. The hot water extracts from Pleurotus citrinopileatus fruit bodies, mycelia and filtrate showed best antimutagenicity effect to against direct-acting mutagen of NQNO (without S9 mix) and indirect-acting m Pleurotus citrinopileatus utagen of B[a]P (add S9 mix). The hot water extracts from Pleurotus citrinopileatus fermented broth showed excellent effect than fruit bodies, and mycelia to against NQNO and B [a] P toward TA98 and TA100. Considering the studies, in addition their abundant nutrients, Pleurotus citrinopileatus exhibit good antioxidant properties and antimutagenic effects. The basis of developing Pleurotus citrinopileatus health food seems can from our research. Keywords: Pleurotus citrinopileatus, taste quality, antioxidant properties, antimutagenic propertiesen_US
dc.description.tableofcontents目 錄 表次 xii 圖次 xv 參考表 xviii 參考圖 xix 前言 1 文獻整理 3 一、金頂側耳之介紹 3 二、食藥用菇類菌絲體深層培養 7 三、菇類之營養及風味 11 四、抗氧化性質 16 五、膳食與癌症的相關性 23 材料與方法 33 一、實驗材料 33 1.金頂側耳子實體 33 2.金頂側耳菌絲體及發酵液 33 A.培養基 33 B.接種源培養 34 C.三角瓶振盪培養 34 D.發酵槽培養 34 3.試藥 35 二、實驗方法 37 (一) 金頂側耳樣品之製備 37 1.金頂側耳子實體粉末製備 37 2.金頂側耳菌絲體及發酵液粉末製備 37 3.金頂側耳乙醇萃取物製備 37 4.金頂側耳熱水萃取物製備 37 5.金頂側耳冷水萃取物製備 37 (二) 金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體及發酵液之一般成分分析 39 1.水分之測定 39 2.灰分之測定 39 3.脂質之測定 39 4.粗纖維之測定 40 5.蛋白質之測定 40 6.還原糖之測定 41 (三) 呈味特性成分分析 41 1.可溶性糖之測定 41 2.胺基酸組成之測定 42 3.核苷酸之測定 44 4.有機酸之測定 44 5.脂肪酸組成之測定 45 6.揮發性成分之測定 46 (四) 金頂側耳之抗氧化性質分析 47 1.抗氧化力之測定 47 2.還原力之測定 47 3.捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團(DPPH)能力之測定 47 4.捕捉羥自由基能力之測定 48 5.螯合亞鐵離子能力之測定 48 (五) 金頂側耳乙醇、熱水及冷水萃取物之抗氧化成分分析 49 1.總酚類化合物測定 49 2.抗壞血酸含量測定 49 3.胡蘿蔔素測定 49 4.生育醇測定 50 (六) 金頂側耳熱水萃取物之抗致突變性質分析 51 1.毒性試驗 51 2.致突變性試驗 51 3.抗致突變性試驗 52 (1) 標準致突變劑溶液之製備 52 (2) 抗致突變試驗方法 52 (七) 統計分析 53 結果與討論 54 一、金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體及發酵液之一般成分分析 54 1.水分 54 2.碳水化合物 54 3.粗灰分 54 4.粗脂質 56 5.粗纖維 56 6.蛋白質 57 二、金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體及發酵液之呈味特性 57 1.可溶性糖 57 2.總胺基酸 69 3.游離胺基酸 61 4.核甘酸 64 5.有機酸 66 6.脂肪酸 66 7. 揮發性香氣成分 69 三、金頂側耳乙醇、熱水及冷水萃取物之萃取率 71 四、金頂側耳萃取物之抗氧化性質 71 (一) 金頂側耳乙醇取物之抗氧化性質 71 1.金頂側耳乙醇萃取物之抗氧化力 71 2.金頂側耳乙醇萃取物之還原力 73 3.金頂側耳乙醇萃取物捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團 之能力 76 4.金頂側耳乙醇萃取物捕捉羥自由基之能力 79 5.金頂側耳乙醇萃取物螯合亞鐵離子之能力 85 6.金頂側耳乙醇萃取物抗氧化性質之EC50 85 7.金頂側耳乙醇萃取物之抗氧化成分分析 89 (二) 金頂側耳熱水萃取物之抗氧化性質 91 1.金頂側耳熱水萃取物之抗氧化力 91 2.金頂側耳熱水萃取物之還原力 94 3.金頂側耳熱水萃取物捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團 之能力 94 4.金頂側耳熱水萃取物捕捉羥自由基之能力 99 5.金頂側耳熱水萃取物螯合亞鐵離子之能力 99 6.金頂側耳熱水萃取物抗氧化性質之EC50 105 7.金頂側耳熱水萃取物之抗氧化成分分析 105 (三) 金頂側耳冷水萃取物之抗氧化性質 108 1.金頂側耳冷水萃取物之抗氧化力 108 2.金頂側耳冷水萃取物之還原力 108 3.金頂側耳冷水萃取物捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團 之能力 113 4.金頂側耳冷水萃取物捕捉羥自由基之能力 113 5.金頂側耳冷水萃取物螯合亞鐵離子之能力 113 6.金頂側耳冷水萃取物抗氧化性質之EC50 120 7.金頂側耳冷水萃取物之抗氧化成分分析 120 8.不同萃取方式對金頂側耳抗氧化能力之比較 124 五、金頂側耳熱水萃取物之毒性、致突變性及抗突變性質 125 (一) 金頂側耳子實體熱水萃取物之毒性、致突變性及 抗突變性質 125 1.金頂側耳子實體熱水萃取物之毒性 125 2.金頂側耳子實體熱水萃取物之致突變性 126 3.金頂側耳子實體熱水萃取物之抗致突變性 131 (二) 金頂側耳菌絲體熱水萃取物之毒性、致突變性及 抗突變性質 137 1.金頂側耳菌絲體熱水萃取物之毒性 137 2.金頂側耳菌絲體熱水萃取物之致突變性 137 3.金頂側耳菌絲體熱水萃取物之抗致突變性 141 (三) 金頂側耳發酵液熱水萃取物之毒性、致突變性及 抗突變性質 147 1.金頂側耳發酵液熱水萃取物之毒性 147 2.金頂側耳發酵液熱水萃取物之致突變性 147 3.金頂側耳發酵液熱水萃取物之抗致突變性 151 4. 金頂側耳子實體、菌絲體及發酵液熱水萃取物抗致 突變之比較 157 結論 158 參考文獻 160zh_TW
dc.language.isoen_USzh_TW
dc.publisher食品科學系zh_TW
dc.subjectPleurotus citrinopileatusen_US
dc.subject金頂側耳zh_TW
dc.subjecttaste qualityen_US
dc.subjectantioxidant propertiesen_US
dc.subjectantimutagenic propertiesen_US
dc.subject呈味特性zh_TW
dc.subject抗氧化zh_TW
dc.subject抗致突變性zh_TW
dc.title金頂側耳之呈味特性和抗氧化及抗致突變性質zh_TW
dc.titleTaste Quality and Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Properties of Pleurotus citrinopileatusen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系
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