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Effect of Various Sugars on Soy Protein Gels Enhanced by Maillard Reaction
|摘要:||梅納反應為食品中常見的一種褐變反應，為胺基化合物與羰基化合物之間所容易發生的一種化學反應，除了導致食品顏色變深外，對蛋白質的凝膠作用亦具有增強的效果。因此本研究利用大豆蛋白分離物作為胺基的來源，以葡萄糖、木糖、果糖、山梨糖、乳糖及麥芽糖等作為羰基來源，利用加熱使大豆蛋白在變性凝膠的同時進行梅納反應。在得到凝膠膠體之後，進行凝膠強度及Hunter-L, a, b值的測定，以確定梅納反應的發生及效果。為了探討梅納反應凝膠膠體的特性，再進行離水率、示差掃描熱析儀之分析、蛋白質溶解度、掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察以及官能品評試驗。
Maillard reaction is a popular browning reaction in foods. It occurs as amino groups and carbonyl groups existed. Maillard reaction not only made food become darker, but also induced the gelation of proteins. The materials of this study were to use soy protein isolates as the source of amino groups, and glucose, xylose, fructose, sorbose, lactose, and maltose as the source of carbonyl groups. When soy protein denatured to form gel, Maillard reaction proceeded at the same time during heating. The obtained gels were then detected by gel strength and Hunter-L, a, b values to investigate the occurrence and effects of Maillard reaction during the gelation of soy protein. In order to examine the characteristics of the gel induced by Maillard reaction, syneresis, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), protein solubility, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination, and sensory evaluation analysis were conducted. Results showed that gel strength increased and browning reaction occurred in the soy protein gel induced by Maillard reaction. Gel induced by Maillard reaction possessed low syneresis, and new covalent bonds formed between protein and sugar molecules. The structure of gel was rigid, and was not easily to open and could form nice three dimensional network structures. Xylose was the most appropriate one to be used among the six sugars mentioned above because of its best reactivity of Maillard reaction. The gel obtained by using xylose had lower protein solubility because more covalent bonds were formed. It also possessed best structure when observed by scanning electron microscope, and better results of sensory evaluation. Therefore, the gel induced by Maillard reaction from xylose was found to possess better characteristics.
|Appears in Collections:||食品暨應用生物科技學系|
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