Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/51961
標題: 利用二階段發酵法製備米糠乳酸發酵飲品及米糠再利用性提升之研究
Studies on preparation of lactic acid bacteria-fermented rice bran drink by two step fermentation and on upgrading utilization of rice bran
作者: Yeung, Chi-Kai
楊志佳
關鍵字: 米糠
rice bran
糠麴
米糠水解液
抗氧化活性
米糠乳酸發酵飲品
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens
bran koji
rice bran hydrolysate
antioxidative activity
lactic acid bacteria-fermented rice bran drink
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens
出版社: 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
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摘要: 米糠為糙米碾白過程中產生之主要副產物,富含脂質、蛋白質、粗纖維、維生素E和B群及礦物質等成分,研究指出米糠尚含多種具抗氧化、降血脂與保肝功能等功效之生理活性物質,且具有促進微生物發酵與生長之特性,因此具發展成機能性食品素材之潛力。但由於米糠含較多量纖維素成分,其蛋白質亦有雙硫鍵結,故水溶性甚低,影響其加工再利用性。本研究以米糠為基質,接種四株麴菌製備糠麴,利用麴菌所分泌之澱粉酶、蛋白酶及纖維酶等水解酵素進行米糠之糖化與分解,比較米糠之溶出率、機能性成分之萃取及抗氧化活性。其次挑選A. niger NCH-318為較適麴菌,製得米糠糠麴水解液,接種克弗爾乳酸菌Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens APLT 61進行培養,探討發酵液之抗氧化能力。 結果顯示,糠麴之較適製備條件如下:米糠起始添加水量為1:1,經高壓滅菌後,以A. niger NCH-318作為麴菌,接種量為2 %(v / w,5 × 107 spores / mL),於30℃,濕度95 %下進行培麴48小時,經冷凍乾燥製成之。可得酸性蛋白酶活性約259.6 U / g,而澱粉酶活性約17.0 U / g。糠麴整體溶出率可由原米糠之28.1 %提升至41.0 %(w / w),而成分變化及抗氧化能力方面:胜肽含量、GABA含量、總多酚類化合物含量、DPPH自由基清除能力及總抗氧化能力均有增加之趨勢。 米糠糠麴水解液之較適製備條件則為糠麴、米糠與水以1:10:50(w / w / v)之比例,於50℃下水解10小時。可得較高之還原糖及胜肽含量,分別約為99.2 mg / mL及52.2μmol / mL。所製得之水解液並作為L. kefiranofaciens APLT 61之培養源。 乳酸發酵方面,米糠糠麴水解液經發酵12小時後,可得與MRS broth近似之乳酸菌菌數9.5 log CFU / mL及pH值4.0。經稀釋3倍之水解液於乳酸發酵12小時後,菌數仍可達8.9 log CFU / mL,且高於未經水解之米糠萃取液。此外,米糠糠麴水解液也具有促進生產乳酸及胞外多醣之能力,經乳酸發酵12小時後,其產量分別為9.8 mg / mL及411.7 μg / mL。而抗氧化活性方面並無提升之效果,但水解液中所含之機能性成分仍可賦予發酵飲品之附加價值。
Rice bran is a by-product of the rice milling process. It contains amounts of protein, oil, crude fiber, vitamin E and vitamin B complex. It has been reported that rice bran contain some functional components and bioactive properties which have antioxidants functions and have capability in hypolipidemic and liver protection. Rice bran also has possibility to become substrate in microbial growth and fermentation. However, a large proportion of rice bran protein less soluble in water or ordinary solvent due to its extensive disulfide bonding and strong aggregation. Moreover, rice bran contains amounts of cellulosic substances that limited its utilization. In this study, rice bran was used as a substrate for preparing bran koji from different strains of fungi. It was partially hydrolyzed by the enzyme produced by fungi, such as α-amylase, protease and cellulase. Effects of yield, extraction of functional components, and antioxidant activity of rice bran extract were investigated. Results showed that Aspergillus niger NCH-318 has the best activity in hydrolysis rice bran, and the antioxideant activity and effect of inoculating lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens APLT 61 were investigated. The optimal solid-state fermentation conditions for bran koji were rice bran and water(1 : 1, w / w), 2 %(5 × 107 spores / mL) of A. niger NCH-318 inoculum, cultured at 30℃and relative humidity 95 % for 48 hours, and then freeze dried. The highest acidic protease activity of bran koji was 259.6 U / g and amylase activity was 17.0 U / g. The overall yield of rice bran was increased from 28.1 % to 41.0 % (w / w), peptide content, GABA content, total ployphenolics, Scavenging DPPH free radical activity and total antioxidant capacity also were increased. The optimal condition for preparing rice bran hydrolysate was bran koji, rice bran and water (1 : 10 : 50, w / w / v). rice bran hydrolysis was performed at 50℃ for 10 hours. The highest reducing sugar content was 99.2 mg / mL and peptide content was 52.2 μmole / mL. This rice bran hydrolysate can be used for cultivating L .kefiranofaciens APLT 61. By using rice bran hydrolysate or MRS broth in L. kefiranofaciens APLT 61 for 12 hours gave similar amounts of lactic acid bacteria counts (9.5 log CFU / mL) with the final pH 4.0. If rice bran hydrolysate was diluted 3 folds in L. kefiranofaciens APLT 61 culture for 12 hours, It gave lactic acid bacteria counts (8.9 log CFU / mL) higher than rice bran extract. Therefore, rice bran hydrolysate has ability in promoting microbial growth, increasing polysaccharide and lactic acid production. The highest polysaccharide and lactic acid production of L. kefiranofaciens APLT 61 with rice bran hydrolysate were 411.7 μg / mL and 9.8 mg / mL.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/51961
其他識別: U0005-1807201114300900
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