Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 國產基因轉殖抗木瓜輪點病毒木瓜果實之營養成分及抗營養成分分析
Quantification of nutrients and anti-nutrients for the genetically modified (papaya ringspot virus-resistant) domestic papaya fruits
作者: 洪瑟雯
Hong, Se-Wen
關鍵字: papaya
genetically motified
papaya ringspot virus
出版社: 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
引用: 王德男 (1994) 認識高品質台灣水果。179-186頁。豐年社。台北。 牛惠之 (2004) 基因改造議題-從紛爭到展望。180-209頁。行政院農委會植物防疫檢局。台北。 包慧俊 (2000) 木瓜輪點病毒鞘蛋白轉機因木瓜抗病性狀之研究。國立中興大學植物病理學研究所博士論文。 丘應模 (1993) 台灣自然觀察圖鑑 (15) 台灣的水果。12-14頁。渡假出版社。台北。 行政院衛生署 (2008) 食品資訊網。生物技術。安全性評估法。基因改造食品之安全性評估法。 行政院衛生署。食品衛生處。台灣地區食品營養成分資料庫。 李素華 (2004) 基因改造議題-從紛爭到展望。210-247頁。行政院農委會植物防疫檢局。台北。 林俊毅、陳甘澍 (2006) 作物抗病育種之現況符合安全農業之病害防治新技術研討會專刊。95-131頁。行政院農委會農業試驗所及中華民國植物病理學會。台中。 范明仁、陳述、林俊義、蔡奇助、楊藹華、王世賢、林學詩 (2005) 基因轉殖植物檢測技術開發體系之建立。基因轉殖植物之生物安全評估與檢測專刊。 105-129 頁。行政院農業委員會農業試驗所。台中。 徐慈鴻 李國欽 (2004) 植物基因轉殖之原理與應用。275-290頁。植物生物技術教學資源中心。台中市。 孫守恭 (1996) 台灣果樹病害。77-102頁。世維出版社。台中。 許榮富 (2004) 歐盟GMO標準制訂的現況與未來發展。國科會國際合作簡訊。8:4-6。 許祥純 (2007) 國立屏東科技大學農學院叢書系列。生物化學實習。實習3-3 木瓜酵素之萃取活性分析。75-79頁。 許輔及徐源泰 (1996) 利用固相萃取及氣相層析法分析番木瓜中苄基異硫氰酯含量之研究。藥物食品分析。4(4): 327-334。 經濟部中央標準局 (1986) 食品中粗蛋白質之檢驗法,CNS 5035 N6116。 經濟部中央標準局 (1990) 食品中維生素 E 含量測定法,CNS 12724 N6229。 經濟部中央標準局 (1991) 嬰兒配方食品中礦物質之檢驗法-銅鐵鎂錳鉀鈉鋅之檢驗,CNS 12869 N6231。 經濟部中央標準局 (1997) 食品檢驗法-粗纖維含量之測定,CNS 5037 N6118。 揚致福 (1951) 台灣果樹誌。40-45 頁。農復會補助出版。嘉義。 熊自屏 (1988) 國外果樹生產與研究。431頁。五洲出版社。台北。 蔡竹龍 (2001) 木瓜輪點病毒鞘蛋白轉基因木瓜和台農二號木瓜化學組成之探討。東海大學食品科學研究所碩士論文。 劉熙 (1985) 熱帶果樹栽培法。279頁。五洲出版社。台北。 AGBIOS (2009) Database Product Description (Crica. papaya) ( 2009.05) Akagi K., Sano M., Ogawa K., Hirose M., Goshima H. and Shirai T. (2003) Involvement of toxicity as an early event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis induced by phenethyl isothiocyanate, benzyl isothiocyanate, and analogues in F344 rats. Toxicologic Pathology 31, 388–396. Albanes D., Heinonen O. P. and Taylor P. R. (1996) Alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: Effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance. J. Nat.l Cancer Inst. 88: 1560-1570. Allen E. (1938) Treatment of meats with proteolytic enzymes. U.S. Patent, 2140781. Dec. 20. Anderson J. W. (1995) Dietary fiber, complex carbydrate and coronary heart disease. Can. J. Cardiol. 11: 55-62. Anderson J. W. and Tietyen-Clark J. (1986) Dietary fiber: hyperlipidemia, hypertension, amd coronary heart disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 81: 907-919. Anderson R., Oosthuizen R., Maritz R., Theron A. and Rensburg A. J. V. (1980) The effect of increasing weekly doses of ascorbate on certain cellular and humoral immune functions in normal volunteers. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33: 71-76. Appleton G. V. N., Owen R. W., Wheeler E. E., Challacombe D. N. and Williamson R. C. N. (1991) Effect of dietary calcium on the colonic luminal Environment Gut 32,1374-1377. Adebiyi A., Adaikan P. G. and Prasad R. N. V. (2004a) Effect of benzyl isothiocyanate on spontaneous and induced force of rat uterine contraction. Pharmacological Research 49:415-422. Adebiyi A., Adaikan P. G. and Prasad R. N. V. (2004b) Pregnancy outcomes following pre- and post-implantation exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats to benzyl isothiocyanate. Food and Chemical Toxicology 42: 715-720. Adetuyi F.O., Akinadewo L.T, Omosuli S. V. and Ajala L. (2008) Antinutrient and antioxidant quality of waxed and unwaxed pawpaw Carica papaya fruit stored at different temperatures. Afr. J. Biotechnol.7(16):2920-2924. Adsuar J. (1946) Studies on virus disease of papaya (Carica papaya) in Puerto Rico, I. Transmission of papaya mosaic. Puerto Rico Agric Exp Stn Tech Pap 1. Afsana K., Shiga K., Ishizuka S. and Hara H. (2004) Reducing effect of ingesting tannic acid on the absorption of iron, but not of zinc, copper and manganese by rats. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 68(3):584-592. AOAC (1988) Determination of insoluble, soluble and total dietary fiber in foods and food products : Interlaboratory study. J. AOAC. 71(5):1017. AOAC (1990a) Folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid) in vitamin preparations, microbiological methods, In “Official Methods of Analysis”, 15th Ed. (Helrich K., rd.), Sec 944.12 pp.1083-1084. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Virginia. AOAC (1990b) Total dietary fiber in foods-enzymatic gravimertic method, In “Official Methods of Analysis”, 15th Ed. (Helrich K., rd.), Sec 985.29 pp.1105-1106. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Virginia. AOAC (1990c) Ca、Cu、Fe、Mg、Mn、P、K、Na and Zn in Infant Formula , In “Official Methods of Analysis”, 15th Ed. (Helrich, K., rd.), Sec 984.27 pp 1106-1107. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, Virginia. AOAC (1995) Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopic Methods, In “Official Methods of Analysis”, Sec 985.01. AOAC (2000) Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, Copper, and Iron in foods. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave digestion. In “Official Methods of Analysis”, 17th Ed. (Horwitz K., rd.), Sec 999.10, Ch. 9, p. 16. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Maryland. AOAC (2003a) Amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber in feeds. In Official methods of Analysis of AOAC International 16th Ed., Sec. 2002.04, Ch 4, 38. AOAC (2003b) Fiber (acid detergent) and lignin (H2SO4) in Animal feed. In Official methods of Analysis of AOAC International 16th Ed., Sec. 2002.04, Ch 4, 37-38. Baghurst P. A. and Rohan T. E. (1994) Hight-fiber diets and reduced risk of breast cancer. Int. J. Cancer 56: 173-176. Bari L., Hassan P., Absar N., Haque M. E., Khuda M. I. I. E., Pervin M. M., Khatu S., and Hossain M. I. (2006) Nutritional analysis of two Local varieties of papaya (Carica papaya L.) at different maturation stages. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 9(1):137-140. Barua A. B. and Olson J. A. (1998) Reversed-phase gradient high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure for simultaneous analysis of very polar to nonpolar retinoids, carotenoids and tocopherols in animal and plant samples. J. Chromatogr. B 707: 69-79. Bau H. J., Cheng Y. H., Yu T. A., Yang J. S. and Yeh S. D. (2003) Broad spectrum resistance to different geographic strains of Papaya ringspot virus in coat protein gene transgenic papaya. Phytopathology 93:112-120. Bau H. J. (2000) Studies on the resistance of transgenic papaya conferred by the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus. PhD Dissertation in Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan. Bau H.J., Cheng Y. H., Yu T. A., Yang J. S., Liou P. C., Hsiao C. H., Lin C.Y. and Yeh S.D. (2004) Field evaluation of transgenic papaya lines carrying the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus in Taiwan. Plant Dis 88:594-599. Baumann J., Bruchhausen F. V. and Wurm G. (1980) Flavonoid and related compounds as inhibitors of arachidonic acid peroxidation. Prostaglandin 20: 627-639. Beachy R. (1990) Coat protein-mediated resistance against virus infection. Annu Rev Phytopathol 28:451-474. Ben-Amotz A. and Fisher R. (1998) Analysis of carotenes with emphasis on 9-cis β-carotene in vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Israel. Food Chem. 62: 515-520. Beyers M., Thomas A. C. and Tonder A. J. V. (1979) γ Irradiation of subtropicalfruits. 1. Compositional tables of mango, papaya, strawberry, and litchi fruits at the edible-ripe stage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 27(1):37-42. BioScience Encyclopedia: Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA. Birkett A., Muir J., Phillips J., Jones G. and O ‘Dea K. (1996) Resistant starch lowers fecal concentrations of ammonia and phenols in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 63:766-772. Brown L., Rosner B., Willett W. W. and Snacks F. M. (1999) Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69:30-42. Breithaupt D. E. and Bamedi A. (2001) Carotenoid esters in vegetables and fruits: A screening with emphasis on β-Cryptoxanthinesters. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49(4):2064-2070. Brekke J. B., Chan H. T., Chang T. S. K. and Stafford A. E. (1971) Nonvolatile acids of papaya. J. Agric. Food Chem. 19: 263-265. Butler L. G., Price M. L. and Brotherton J. E. (1982) Vanillin assay for proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins): Modification of the solvent for estimation of degree of polymerization. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 30:1087-1089. Calvo D. E. B.and Biglieri L. A. (2008) Impact of folic acid fortification on women nutritional status and on the prevalence of neural tube defects. Arch Argent Pediatr 106(6):492-498. Cano M. P., Lobo M. G., de Ancos B., Galeazzi M. A. M. (1996a) Polyphenol oxidase from Spanish hermaphrodite and female papaya fruits (Carica papaya cv. Sunrise, Solo Group) J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:3075-3079. Cano M. P., de Ancos B. and Monreal G. L. M. (1996b) Effects of freezing and canning of papaya slices on their carotenoid composition. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 202:279-284. Capoor S. P. and Varma P. M. (1948) A mosaic disease of Carica papaya L. in the Bombay province. Current Sci 17:265-266. Carr A. C. and Frei B. (1999) Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69: 1086-1107. CGSB (2004) Voluntary labelling and advertising of foods that are and are not products of genetic engineering national standard. CAN/CGSB-32.315-2004. Gatineau, Quebec. Cheng Y. H. (1994) Construction and evaluaton of transgenic plants expressing the coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus isolated from Taiwan. PhD Dissertation in Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan. Cheng Y. H., Yang J. S. and Yeh S. D. (1996) Efficient transformation of papaya by coat protein gene of Papaya ringspot virus mediated by Agrobacterium following liquid-phase wounding of embryogenic tissues with carborundum. Plant Cell Rep 16:127-132. Chew B. P. and Park J. S. (2004) Carotenoid action on the immune response. J. Nutr. 134: 257-261. Codex (2003a) Principles for the risk analysis of foods derived from modern biotechnology. CAC/GL 44-2003. Codex (2003b) Guideline for the conduct of food safety assessment of foods derived from recombinant-DNA plants. CAC/GL 45-2003. Conover R. A. (1964) Distortion ringspot, a severe disease of papaya in Florida. Proc Fla State Hortic Soc 77:440-444. Corral-Aguayo R. D., Yahia E. M., Carrillo-Lopez A., Gonzalez-Aguilar G. (2008) Correlation between some nutritional components and the total antioxidant capacity measured with six different assays in eight horticultural crops. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56:10498–10504. De Whaley C. V., Rankin S. M., Hoult J. R. S., Jessup W. and Leake D. S. (1990) Flavovnoid inhibit the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein by macrophages. Biochem. Pharmacol. 39: 1743-1750. Downs C. T., Mcdonald P., Brown K., and Ward D. (2003) Effects of Acacia condensed tannins on urinary parameters, body mass, and diet choice of an Acacia specialist rodent, Thallomys nigricauda. J. Chem. Ecol. 29(4):845-858. Dugo P., Herrero M., Giuffrida D., Ragonese C., Dugo G. and Mondello L. (2008) Analysis of native carotenoid composition in orange juice using C30 columns in tandem. J. Sep. Sci. 31: 2151-2160. EFSA (2008) Safety and nutrition assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: The role of animal feeding trials. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46: 2-70. Elliott P., Kesteloot H., Appel L. J., Dyer A. R., Ueshima H., Chan Q., Brown I. J., Zhao L. and Stamler J. (2008) Dietary phosphorus and blood pressure: International study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension 51:669-675. European Commission (2003a) Regulation (EC) 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2003 on genetically modified food and feed. Off. J. Eur. Union, 268: 1-23. European Commission (2003b) Regulation (EC) No 1830/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2003 concerning the traceability and labelling of genetically modified organisms and the traceability of food and feed products produced from genetically modified organisms and amending Directive 2001/18/EC. Off. J. Eur. Union, 268: 24-28. European Commission (1997) Evaluation of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997 concerning novel foods and novel food ingredients (Novel Food Regulation) Off. J. 43. FAO/WHO (2004) Vitamin and Mineral Requirements in Human Nutrition: A Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, Bangkok, Thailand, 21–30 September 1998. FAO/WHO, ROME/Geneva. FAO/WHO (2000) Safety aspects of genetically modified foods of plant origin, a joint FAO/WHO consultation on foods derived from biotechnology. World Health Organization, Geneva. FAO/WHO (1991) Strategies for assessing the safety of foods produced by biotechnology. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Consultation. World Health Organization , Geneva. FDA (2001) Draft guidance: Guidance for industry voluntary labeling indicating whether foods have or have not been developed using bioengineering. January, 2001. FDA (1992) Statement of Policy: Foods Derived From new Plant Varieties. Federal Register Vol 57, No 104, 29 May 1992. FDA Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. CHAPTER IV—FOOD. Feldman N., Norenberg C., Voet H., MANOR E., Berner Y. and Madar Z. (1995) Enrichment of an Israeli ethnic food with fibres and their effects on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. British Journal of Nutrition 74:681-688. Fischer P. W. F. and Giroux A. (1987) Effects of Dietary Magnesium on Sodium-Potassium Pump Action in the Heart of Rats. J. Nutr. 117: 2091-2095. Fitch M. M. M., Manshardt R. M., Gonsalves D., Slightom J. L. and Sanford J.C. (1990) Stable transformation of papaya via microprojectile bombardment. Plant Cell Rep 9: 189-194. Fitch M. M. M. and Manshardt R. M. (1990) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature zygotic embryos of papaya (Carica papaya L.). Plant Cell Rep 9: 320-324. Franke A. A., Murphy S. P., Lacey R. and Custer L. J. (2007) Tocopherol and tocotrienol levels of foods Consumed in Hawaii. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55:769-778. Friso S., Girelli D., Martinelli N., Olivieri O., Lotto V., Bozzini C., Pizzolo F., Faccini G., Beltrame F. and Corrocher R. (2004) Low plasma vitamin B-6 concentrations and modulation of coronary artery disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr 79: 992– 998. Godoy H. T. and Rodriguez-Amaya D. B.Occurrence of cis-Isomers of provitamin A in Brazilian fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:1306-1313. 1994. Gonsalves D. (2002) Coat protein transgenic papaya “acquired” immunity for controlling papaya ringspot virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 266:73-83. Geleijnse J. M., Kok F. J. and Grobbee D. E. (2003) Blood pressure response to changes in sodium and potassium intake: a metaregression analysis of randomised trials. J Hum Hypertens 17: 471–480. Goldbach R., Bucher E. and Prins M. (2003) Resistance mechanisms to plant viruses: An overview. Virus Res 92:207-212. Granados-Soto V., Tera´n-Rosales F., Rocha-Gonza´lez H. I., Reyes-Garcı´a G., Medina-Santilla´n R., Rodrı´guez-Silverio J. and Flores-Murrieta F. J. (2004) Riboflavin reduces hyperalgesia and inflammation but not tactile allodynia in the rat Eur. J. Pharmacol. 492:35– 40. Gryglewski R. J., Korbut R., Robak J. and Sueis J. (1987) On the mechanism of antithrombotic action of flavonoid. Biochem. Pharmacol. 36: 317. Gupta A. , Wambebe C. and Parsons D. L. (1990) Central and cardiovascular effects of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Carica papaya. International Journal of Crude Drug Research 28(4): 257-266. Hagerman A. E. and Butler L. G. (1994) Assay of condensed tannins or flavonoid oligomers and related flavonoids in plants. Methods in Enzymology 234:429–437. Hands E. S. (2000) Nutrients in food. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins: Philadelphia. Hardisson A., Rubio C., Baez A., Martin M. M. and Alvarez R. (2001) Mineral composition of the papaya (Carica papaya variety sunrise) from Tenerife island. Eur Food Res Technol 212 :175–181. Haslam E. and Lilley T. H. (1988) Natural astringency in foodstuffs A molecular interpretation. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 27:1–40. Havsteen B. (1983) Flavonoids, A class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biochem. Pharmacol. 32: 1141-1148. Heaney R. P., and Nordin B. E. C. (2002) Calcium Effects on phosphorus absorption: Implications for the prevention and co-therapy of osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr 21(3):239–244. Heidlas J., Lehr M., Idstein H. and Schreier P. (1984) Free and bound terpene compounds in papaya (Carica papaya, L.) fruit pulp. J. Agric. Food Chem. 32 (5):1020-1021. Hennekens C. H. (1996) Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasm and cardiovascular disease. New Engl. J. Med. 334: 1145-1149. Hernandez Y., Lobo M. G. and Gonzalez. (2009) Factor affecting sample extraction in the liquid chromatographic determination of organic acids in papaya and pineapple. Food Chem. 114: 734-741. Herschell G. (1886) On papain and its use in the treatment of dyspepsia. Br Med J. 1(1318): 640. Herold F. and Weibel J. (1962) Electron microscopic demonstration of papaya ringspot virus. Virology 18:307-311. Hertog M. G. L. (1995) Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the 7 countries study. Arch. Int. Med. 155: 1184-1195. Hinojosa M. (2000) Annual meeting of the aragonese society of allergology. Alergol Inmunol Clin 15: 32-72. Hindrichsen I. K., Kreuzer M., Madsen M. and Bach Knudsen K. E. (2006) Fiber and lignin analysis in concentrate, forage, and feces: detergent versus enzymatic-chemical method. J. Diary Sci. 89, 2168-2176. Hothorn L. A. and Oberdoerfer R. (2006) Statistical analysis used in the nutritional assessment of novel food using the proof of safety. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 44:125-135. Howe G. R., Benito E. and Castelleto R. (1992) Dietary intake of fiber and decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case-control studies studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 84:1887-1896. International Life Sciences Institute. (1995) Oxidants, Antioxidants, and Disease Prevention. ILSI Press, Washington, DC. Jacob R. A., Kelly D. S., Pianalto F. S., Swendseid M. E., Henning S. M., Zhang J. Z., Ames B. N., Fraga C. G. and Peters J. H. (1991) Immunocompetence and oxidant defense during ascorbate depletion of healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 54:1302-1309. Jaegger P. and Robertson W. G. (2004) Role of dietary intake and intestinal absorption of oxalate in calcium stone formation. Nephron Physiol 98: 64–71. Jan F. J., Fagoaga C., Pang S. Z. and Gonsalves D. (2000) A single chimeric transgene derived from two distinct viruses confers multivirus resistance in transgenic plants through homology-dependent gene silencing. J Gen Virol 81:2103-2109. Jaroenporn S., Yamamoto T., Itabashi A., Nakamura K., Azumano I., Watanabe G. and Taya K. (2008) Effects of pantothenic acid supplementation on adrenal steroid secretion from male rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 31(6):1205—1208. Jenkins D. J. (1979) Dietary fiber, diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia: progress and prospects. Lancet 2:1287-1290. Jensen D. D. (1949a) Papaya virus diseases with special reference to papaya ringspot. Phytopathology 39:191-211. Jensen D. D. (1949b) Papaya ringspot virus and its insect vector relationship. Phytopathology 39:212-220. Jorde R. and Bønaa K. H. (2000) Calcium from dairy products, vitamin D intake, and blood pressure: the Tromsø study. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1530–1535. Jolivalt C. G., Mizisin L. M., Nelson A., Cunha J. M., Ramos K. M., Bonke D. and Calcutt N. A. (2009) B vitamins alleviate indices of neuropathic pain in diabetic rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 612:41–47. Karachalias N., Babaei-Jadidi R., Kupich C., Ahmed N., and Thornalley P. J. (2005) High-dose thiamine therapy counters dyslipidemia and advanced glycation of plasma protein in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1043: 777–783. Kayashima T. and Katayama T. (2002) Oxalic acid is available as a natural antioxidant in some systems. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1573:1 – 3. Kido M., Ando K., Onozato M. L., Tojo A., Yoshikawa M., Ogita T. and Fujita T. (2008) Protective Effect of Dietary Potassium Against Vascular Injury in Salt-Sensitive Hypertension. Hypertension. 51:225-231. Kirsch A. J. and Chen T. S. (1984) Comparison of conjugase treatment procedures in the microbiological assay of food folacin. J. Food. Sci. 49:94-98. Koepke J. P. and Dibona G. F. (1985) High sodium intake enhances renal nerve and antinatriuretic responses to stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 7: 357-363. Kose N., Aytacoglu B. N., Yilmaz N., Dondas H. A., Tamer L., Coskun B., Vezir O., Sucu N. and Dikmengil M. (2008) Citric acid as a decalcifying agent for the excised calcified human heart valves. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 8:94-98. Kwak H. K., Hansen C. M., Leklem J. E., Hardin K. and Shultz T. D. (2002) Improved vitamin B-6 status is positively related to lymphocyte proliferation in young women consuming a controlled diet. J. Nutr. 132: 3308–3313. Lana A. F. (1980) Transmission and properties of virus isolated from Carica papaya in Nigeria. J Hortic Sci 55:191-197. Larsson S. C., Bergkvist L., Rutegård J., Giovannucci E. and Wolk A. (2006) Calcium and dairy food intakes are inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in the cohort of Swedish men. Am J Clin Nutr 83:667–73. Laughton J. M., Evans P. J., Moroney M. A. and Hoult J. R. S. (1991) Inhibition of mammnliam lipoxygenese and cyclooxygenase by flavonoid and phenolic dietary additives. Biochem. Pharmacol. 18: 1673-1681. Lee J. H., Zhou H. Y., Cho S. Y., Kim Y. S., Lee Y. S. and Jeong C. S. (2007) Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of apigenin: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, adhesion of monocytes to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells, and expression of cellular adhesion molecules. Arch Pharm Res 30(10): 1318-1327. Lee S.C., Park S. W., Kim D. K., Lee S. H. and Hong K. P. (2001) Iron supplementation inhibits cough associated with ACE inhibitors. Hypertension. 38:166-170. Lenton K. J., Sané A. T., Therriault H., Cantin A. M., Payette H. and Wagner J. R. (2003) Vitamin C augments lymphocyte glutathione in subjects with ascorbate deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 77: 189–195. Libert B. and Franceschi V. R. (1987) Oxalate in crop plants. J. Agric. Food Chem. 35: 926-938. Ling K, Namba S., Gonsalves C., Slightom J. L. and Gonsalves D. (1991) Protection against detrimental effects of potyvirus infection in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein gene. Bio/Technology 9:752-758. Lius S., Manshdt R. M., Fitch M. M. M., Slightom J. L., Sanford J. C. and Gosalves D. (1997) Pathogen-derived resistance provides papaya with effective protection against papaya ringspot virus. Molecular Breeding 3: 161-168. Lomonossoff G. P. (1995) Pathogen-derived resistance to plant viruses. Annu Rev Phytopathol 33:323-343. Lund E. D. and Smoot J. M. (1982) Dietary fiber content of some tropical fruits and vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 30:1123-1127. MacLeod A. J. and Pieris M. (1983) Volatile components of papaya (Carica papaya L.) with particular reference to glucosinolate products. J. Agric. Food Chem. 31: 1005–1008. Mahattanatawee K., Manthey J. A., Luzio G., Talcott S. T., Goodner K. and Baldwin E. A. (2006) Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:7355-7363. Masutomi N., Toyoda K., Shibutani M., Niho N., Uneyama C., Takahashi N. and Hirose M. (2001) Toxic effects of benzyl and allyl isothiocyanates and benzyl-isoform specific metabolites in the urinary bladder after s single intravesical application to rats. Toxicologic Pathology 29(6): 617-622. McLeod M. N. (1974) Plant tannins, their role in forage quality 44: 803–815. Min B. R. and Hart S. P. Tannins for suppression of internal parasites. Nutr. Abstr. Rev. 44:803–815. MacLeod A. J. and Pieris N. M. (1983) Volatile components of papaya (Carica papaya L.) with particular reference to glucosinolate products. J. Agric. Food Chem. 31 (5):1005-1008. Melo E. A., Lima V. L. A. G, Maciel M. I. S., Caetano A. C. S. and Leal F. L. L. (2006) Polyphenol, ascorbic acid and total carotenoid contents in common fruits and vegetables. Braz. J. Food Technol. 9(2):89-94. Merrill A. L. and Watt B. K. (1955) Application of general factors to national food supplies. In energy value of foods. USDA. Agriculture handbook 74: 48-49. Meydani S. N., Barkiund M. P., Liu S., Meydani M., Miller R. A., Cannon J. G., Morrow F. D., Rocklin R. and Blumberg J. B. (1990) Vitamin E supplementation enhances cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 52:557-563. Middleton E. J. R. and Kandaswami C. (1992) Effect of flavonoids on immune and inflammatory cell function. Biochem. Pharmacol. 43:1167-1179. Miller C. D. and Robbins R. C. (1937) The nutritive value of papaya. Biochem. J. xxxi:1-11. Miller P. R. and Ehlke N. J. (1994) Condensed tannin relationships with in vitro forage quality analyses for Birdsfoot trefoil. Crop Sci. 34:1074–1079. Mignone L. I., Giovannucci E., Newcomb P. A., Titus-Ernstoff L., Trentham-Dietz A., Hampton J. M., Willett W. C. and Egan K. M. (2009) Dietary carotenoids and the risk of invasive breast cancer. Int. J. Cancer 124: 2929–2937. Moore M. A., Park C. B. and Tsuda H. (1998) Soluble and insoluble fiber influences on cancer development. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 27:229-242. Muller D., Mehling H., Otto B., Bergmann-Lips R., Luft F., Jordan J. and Kettritz R. (2007) Niacin lowers serum phosphate and increases HDL cholesterol in dialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2:1249-1254. Murashige T. and Abuzeid Y. (1964) Sugar estimation, refractometric dry solids as an indicator of sugar content of papaya fruit. J. Agric. Food Chem. 12(6):520-522. Nakamura Y., Yoshimoto M., Murata Y., Shimoishi Y., Asai Y., Park E. Y., Sato K. and Nakamura Y. (2007) Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate. Agric. Food Chem. 55:4407-4413. Nakajima Y., Shimazawa M., Ishibashi T., Otsubo K. and Hara H. (2009) Zeaxanthin, a retinal carotenoid, protects retinal cells against oxidative stress. Current Eye Research 34:311–318. Nakamura Y., Yoshimoto M., Murata Y., Shimoishi Y., Asai Y., Park E.Y., Sato K. and Nakamura Y. (2007) Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 4407-4413. Nguyen T. M., Binh D. V. and Ørskov E. R. (2005) Effect of foliages containing condensed tannins and on gastrointestinal parasites. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 121:77–87. Nisperos-Carriedo M. O., Buslig B. S. and Shaw P. E. (1992) Simultaneous detection of dehydroascorbic, ascorbic, and some organic acids in fruits and vegetables by HPLC. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 1127-1130. Nitsawang S., Hatti-Kaul R. and Kanasawud P. (2006) Purification of papain from Carica papaya latex: Aqueous two-phase extraction versus two-step salt precipitation. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 39:1103–1107. Nugon-Baudon L., Rabot S., Szylit O. and Raibaud P. (1990) Glucosinolates toxicity in growing rats: interactions with the hepatic detoxification system. Xenobiotica. 20(2):223-230. Nunes M. C. N., Emondb J. P. and Brecht J. K. (2006) Brief deviations from set point temperatures during normal airport handling operations negatively affect the quality of papaya (Carica papaya) fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 41:328–340. Oberleithnera H., Calliesa C., Kusche-Vihroga K., Schillersa H., Shahina V., Riethmullera C., MacGregorb G. A. and de Wardenerb H. E. (2009) Potassium softens vascular endothelium and increases nitric oxide release. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(8):2829–2834. OECD (2008) Consensus document on compositional considerations for new varieties of tomato: Key food and feed nutrients, toxicants, and allergens. Series on the safety of novel foods and feeds, No.17. Joint meeting of the chemicals committee and the working party on chemicals, pesticides and biotechnology. OGTR (2003) DIR 026/2002 - Field trial for evaluation of GM papaya to delay fruit ripening and to test the expression of the introduced genes. Risk assessment and risk management plan for intentional release into the environment.Application No. DIR 026/2002. ( 2009/05) Omenn G. S., Gary E. and Goodman M.S. (1996) Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. New Engl. J. Med. 334: 1150-1155. Omenn G.. S., Goodman G. E. and Thornguist M. D. (1996) Risk factor for lung cancer and for intervention effects in CARET, the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 88: 1550-1559. O’Nel C. A. and Schwartz S. J. (1992) Chromatographic analysis of cis/trans carotenoid isomers. J. Chromatogr. 624:235-252. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (1993) Safety evaluation of foods derived through modern biotechnology: Concepts and principles. OECD, Paris, France. Owoyele B. V., Adebukola O. M., Funmilayo A. A. and Soladoye A. O. (2008) Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves. Inflammopharmacology 16:168–173. Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/World Health Organization (WHO) (2003) Report of the regional meeting on genetically modified foods, 13th Inter-American Meeting, at the ministerial level, on health and agriculture, PAHO/ WHO, Washington, D.C. Peters E. M., Goetzsche J. M., Grobbelaar B. and Noakes T. D. (1993) Vitamin C supplementation reduces the incidence of postrace symptoms of upper-respiratory-tract infection in ultramarathon runners. Am J Clin Nutr 57: 170-174. Phillips J., Muir J. G, Birkett A., Lu Z. X., Jones G. P., 0 ‘Dea K. and Young G. P. (1995) Effect of resistant starch on fecal bulk and fermentation-dependent events in humans. Am J C/in Nutr 62:121-130. Pomeranz Y. and Meloan C. E. (1994) Food Analysis: Theory and Practice. 3rd ed., Chanpman & Hall, London, UK. p580. Powell-Abel P., Nelson R. S., De B., Hoffmann N., Rogers S. G., Fraley R. T. and Beachy R. N. (1986) Delay of disease development in transgenic plants that express the Tobacco mosaic virus coat protein gene. Science 232:738-743. Purcifull D. E., Edwardson J. R., Hiebert E. and Gonsalves D. (1984) Papaya ringspot virus. CMI/AAB description of plant viruses. No 292. Raben A., Christensen N. J., Madsen J., Hoist J. J. and Astrup A. (l994) Decreased postprandial thermogenesis and fat oxidation but increased fullness after a high-fiber meal compared with a low-fiber meal. Am J Clin Nutr 59:l386-94. Rhodes M. J. C. and Price K. R. (1996) Analytical problems in the study of flavonoid compounds in onions. Food Chem. 57: 113-117. Ridley W. P., Shillito R. D., Coats I., Steiner H. Y., Shawgo M., Phillips A., Dussold P. and Kurtyka L. (2004) Development of the Internation Iife Sciences Institute Crop Composition Database. J. Food Compos.t Anal. 17: 423-438. Roberts M., Minott D. A., Tennant P. F. and Jackson J. C. (2008) Assessment of compositional changes during ripening of transgenic papaya modified for production against papaya ringspot virus. J Sci Food Agric 88:1911-1920. Rocha e Silva M. and Andrade S.O. (1943) Histamine and proteolytic enzymes. Liberation of histamine by papain. J. Biol. Chem. 149: 9-17. Rommele G. and Hagemann R. (1978) Preparation of a stablized papain solution. U.S. Patent, 4118515. Oct. 3, 1978. Roodenburg A. J. C., West C. E., Hovenier R. and Beynen A. C. (1996) Supplemental vitamin A enhances the recovery from iron deficiency in rats with chronic vitamin A deficiency Br. J. Nutr. 75:623-636. Rossetto M. R. M., Nascimento J. R. O. D., Purgatto E., Fabi J. P., Lajolo F. M. and Cordenunsi B. R. (2008) Benzylglucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, and myrosinase activity in papaya fruit during development and ripening. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56: 9592–9599. Sanford J. C. and Johnston S. A. (1985) The concept of parasite-derived resistance: deriving resistance gene from the parasite’s own genome. J Thero Biol 113:395-405. Sato Y., Meller R., Yang T., Taki W. and Simon R. P. (2008) Stereo-selective neuroprotection against stroke with vitamin A derivatives Brainresearch 1241:188–192. Satrija F., Nansen P., Murtini S., He S. (1995) Anthelmintic activity of papaya latex against patent Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 48:161-164. Scartezzini P., Antognoni F., Raggi M. A., F. Poli F. and Sabbioni C. (2006) Vitamin C content and antioxidant activity o
摘要: 單抗PRSV轉基因木瓜株系 (16-0-1、18-2-4) 為以台農2號番木瓜 (Carica papaya cv. Tainung No.2, TN2) 作為受體植物,以農桿菌為媒介將PRSV YK之鞘蛋白 (CP) 基因轉入所育成之本土轉基因木瓜。本研究分析木瓜輪點病毒轉基因木瓜之生果及熟果 (16-0-1、18-2-4) 於營養成分及抗營養成分之差異,藉以評估與未轉基因木瓜者 (台農2號, TN2) 於化學組成上是否具“實質等同”之性質。 比較生果與熟果於化學組成之差異。三品系(16-0-1、18-2-4及TN2) 之一般組成分 (灰分、粗蛋白、總糖、熱量)、總多酚、縮合單寧、維生素 (A、B2、B3、B6、C、葉酸)、類胡蘿蔔素 (zeaxanthin除外)、有機酸 (malic acid、succinic acid) 及鉀等之含量皆為生果低於熟果;水分、粗脂肪、纖維素、有機酸 (lactic acid、citric acid、fumaric acid)、維生素B5、礦物質 (鈣、鎂、鐵、磷) 及苄基硫配糖體 (Benzyl glucosinolate, BG) 等之含量則為生果高於熟果;維生素E及鈉之含量,於生果熟果間無顯著性差異。苄基異硫氰酸酯 (Benzyl isothiocyanate, BITC) 含量與成熟度無相關性。 比較轉基因木瓜與未轉基因木瓜之生果及熟果於化學組成之差異。二個轉基因木瓜 (16-0-1、18-2-4) 之生果及熟果之一般組成分 (水分、灰分、熱量、粗蛋白質、粗脂肪、總糖、纖維素)、類胡蘿蔔素 (lutein、β-cryptoxanthin及lycopene)、水溶性維生素 [B2、B3、B5、B6 (18-2-4)、C及葉酸]、脂溶性維生素A及E、礦物質 (鈉、鉀、鈣、鎂) 及總多酚等含量與對照組之差異在±30%內;維生素B2之差異在26-48%間;1601生果之維生素B6之差異則高達162%;縮合單寧之差異則在15-44%間;磷之差異在±40%內;鐵之差異在40-69.5 %間。有機酸 (malic acid、lactic acid、citric acid、succinic acid) 之含量,二個轉基因木瓜之生果及熟果與對照組差異在±50%內;1601生果之succinic acid之差異為69%;fumaric acid之差異則在10-90 %間。抗營養成分之BITC含量,二個轉基因木瓜之生果及熟果,與對照組之差異高達65-143%;BG含量,二個轉基因木瓜生果與對照組之差異在232-269%間,而熟果則無顯著性差異。在40個分析項目中,轉基因木瓜16-0-1生果與非轉基因木瓜的差異落在安全範圍內總計有29個項目,佔全部分析項目的73%,熟果總計有22個項目,佔全部分析項目的55%;轉基因木瓜18-2-4生果與非轉基因木瓜的差異性落在安全範圍內總計有22個項目,佔全部分析項目的55%,熟果總計有26個項目,佔全部分析項目的65%。
A coat protein (CP) gene from PRSV YK (a Taiwanese papaya ringspot virus strain) was transfered to a Taiwanese papaya cultivar (Tainung NO.2, TN2) by Agrobacterium-mediated transgenosis to produce two single PRSV-resistant CP-transgenic papaya cultivars (16-0-1, 18-2-4). The aim of this study, we quantified nutrients and anti-nutrients in these two genetically modified papaya fruits (16-0-1, 18-2-4) to evaluate their chemical compositions would be substantially equivalent to those of non-genetically modified one (TN2) or not. Compared to the chemical compositional differences between the premature and mature papaya fruits in three papaya cultivars (16-0-1, 18-2-4, TN2). The levels of proximate components (ash, crude protein, total sugar, calorific capacity), total phenol, condensed tannin, vitamin (A, B2, B3, B6, C, folic acid), carotenoids (exception to zeaxanthin), organic acid (malic acid, succinic acid), and potassium in the premature fruits were lower than those in mature ones; the levels of proximate components (moisture, crude lipid, fiber), organic acid (lactic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid), vitamin B5, minerals (calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus), and benzyl glucosinolate (BG) in the premature fruits were higher than those in mature ones. There were no differences in vitamin E and sodium contents between premature and mature fruits. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) level was uncorrelated to the maturity of them. Compared to the chemical compositional differences between the genetically modified papaya fruits and the control at both premature and mature stages. The differences for the levels of proximate components (moisture, ash, calorific capacity, crude protein, crude lipid, total sugar, fiber), carotenoids (lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene), water-soluble vitamins [B2, B3, B5, B6 (18-2-4), C, folic acid], fat-soluble vitamins (A, E), minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium), and total phenol between two genetically modified papaya fruits and control at both premature and mature stages were within ±30%. The differences for the levels of vitamin B2 between two genetically modified papaya fruits and control at both premature and mature stages were 26-48%; condensed tannin, 15-44%; phosphorus, within ±40%; iron, 40-69.5%. The difference for the levels of vitamin B6 between 16-0-1 and control at premature stage was up to 162%. For the levels of organic acid (malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid), the differences between two genetically modified papayas and the control at both premature and mature stages were within ±50%; the difference for the levels of succinic acid between16-0-1 and control at premature stage was 69%; the differences for the levels of fumaric acid between two genetically modified papaya fruits and control at both premature and mature stages were 10-90%. The anti-nutrients of BITC level, the differences between two genetically modified papayas and the control at both premature and mature stages were high at 65-143%. The difference for BG level between two genetically modified papaya fruits and control at premature stage was 232-269%; oppositely, no difference at mature stage. Of the total 40 analysiscal items, the safety range of the differences for the premature and mature genetically modified 16-0-1 compared to the control were 73% (29/40) and 55% (22/40), respectively. Of the total 40 analysiscal items, the safety range of the differences for the premature and mature genetically modified 18-2-4 compared to the control were 55% (22/40) and 65% (26/40), respectively.
Appears in Collections:食品暨應用生物科技學系



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.