Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/52066
標題: Quality Evaluation of Dehulled Adlay Bread and Polished Adlay Bread
糙薏仁土司與精白薏仁土司之品質評估
作者: Liu, Hsiu-Chin
劉秀琴
關鍵字: Dehulled adlay
糙薏仁
Polished adlay
Bread
Coixenolide
Sensory evaluation
精白薏仁
土司
薏仁酯
官能品評
出版社: 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
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摘要: 自古以來,薏仁即是一種人類常食藥兼用的農產品之一,因含有豐富的澱粉、蛋白質、維生素及礦物質,故常作為良好的健康食材。薏仁,其中含有薏仁酯(Coixenolide,C38H70O4)、薏仁多醣(Coixans)等具有特殊生理機能之成分,可以提高腎臟的新陳代謝、美化肌膚,亦能調節免疫機能、抑制癌細胞增殖,以及對心臟血管和子宮有興奮作用,並且還具有降血脂等功能因而備受重視。有關添加至土司以提升烘焙食品保健功效方面之研究,目前尚未有完整文獻報告。因此,本研究以糙薏仁粉末與精白薏仁粉末為原料,取代20 %麵粉的原料比例添加於麵糰,製成糙薏仁土司與精白薏仁土司,並以白土司當作對照組,進行其一般成分、物理性質、呈味品質、儲藏性質、官能品評及機能性質之分析。 從一般成分分析可知,麵粉、糙薏仁粉與精白薏仁粉主要由醣類(89.94、72.97和72.61%)所組成;糙薏仁粉之粗纖維和粗脂質(4.62和6.31%)含量明顯高於精白薏仁粉(3.34和4.83%)及麵粉(1.63和2.47%),。在物理性質方面,三種土司的明亮度依序為白土司(77.86)>精白薏仁土司(72.70)>糙薏仁土司(67.52)。X-射線繞射分析發現三種土司之繞射峰強度會隨著儲藏時間增加而逐漸增強,且繞射圖譜會由V型光譜轉變成B型光譜。白土司、糙薏仁土司與精白薏仁土司於4ºC儲藏後,質地剖析之結果顯示,隨著儲藏時間的增加,其網狀結構逐漸緊密、平滑,這些現象皆為澱粉回凝所導致的現象;而在質地剖析(TPA)方面,也隨著儲藏天數的增加,三種土司的硬度有增加的趨勢;而彈性度、附著度、膠性度、咀嚼度及恢復力則隨著儲藏時間的增加而降低。 在呈味品質上,三種土司的可溶性醣含量,糙薏仁土司(19.26 mg/g)與精白薏仁土司(18.19 mg/g)均較白土司(8.26 mg/g)高,而糙薏仁粉末和精白薏仁粉末兩者並無顯著差異。核苷酸含量以糙薏仁土司最高(29.18 μg/g),精白薏仁土司次之(28.99 μg/g),而以白土司最低(18.67 μg/g)。在游離胺基酸含量方面,糙薏仁土司(32.14 mg/g)比糙薏仁土司(29.72 mg/g)與白土司(18.17 mg/g)高。因此,糙薏仁粉末及精白薏仁粉末可提高土司中的鮮味,進而增加土司的風味與營養價值。 在總生菌數方面,當儲藏至第八天時,糙薏仁土司(5.67 log CFU/ml)及精白薏仁土司(4.23 log CFU/ml)的總生菌數明顯比白土司(2.96 log CFU/ml)高。在消費者喜好性分析口感比較上,糙薏仁土司、精白薏仁土司與白土司三者之間在統計上並無顯著差異。 在機能性分析中,薏仁酯含量以糙薏仁粉末、精白薏仁粉末高於麵粉;麵糰中薏仁酯含量,糙薏仁麵糰與精白薏仁麵糰,兩者並無顯著之差異;而在三種土司中以糙薏仁土司的薏仁酯含量最高,其次是精白薏仁土司。 綜此,土司中添加糙薏仁粉末及精白薏仁粉末,除了提高營養價值外,還可以提供消費者對保健型烘焙產品上的多樣化的新選擇。
Since ancient times, adlay has been one important kind of human's therapeutic food and produce. adlay often has been chose for healthy food since it contains abundant amount of starch, proteins, vitamins and minerals. The ingredients of adlay including coixenolide and coixans have prevalent special functions such as improvement physiology functions, kidney metabolism, beautified skin, regulation the function of immune system, inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, excitatory effects on heart and the womb and lipid-lowering. Currently, no research is related to the addition of Job's tear on bread products to enhance the healthy effectiveness of aspects. However they do not mention about Job's tear additions. Therefore, this research focuses on the effects on two kinds of Job's tear products additives on toast. The research uses of dehulled and polished adlay powders to substitute for 20% white bread dough. Comparison between traditional white and two 20% adlay powders bread is made, including proximate composition; physical and storage properties; taste quality, sensory evaluation and functional characteristic. The main findings of this project are: Form the proximate composition analysis, the main content of wheat flour, and dehulled or polished adlay powders is Carbohydrates (89.94%, 72.97% and 72.61%, respectioely). The content of crude fiber and fat of dehulled adlay powers is much higher than the content of polished adlay one or wheat flour. According to the physical properties analysis, the lightness of three kinds of toast are in the descending order of white toast's (77.86%) and polished adlay powder toast's (72.70%) and then dehulled adlay powder toast's (67.52%). The X-ray diffraction pattern demonstrates that the intensity of each kind of toast' peak increased with time and their diffraction patterns have been changed form V-type to B-type. After all three test pieces stored at 4℃ for 0 to 8 days, their texture profile analysis show that their net structures gradually become close and smooth with the increasing storage time. These phenomena result form the consequence of staling. As well as, form the texture profile analysis, it shows that along with the storage time, the hardness of three toasts increased whereas the springiness,cohesiveness,gumminess, chewiness and resilience decreased. With regard to the taste quality,the soluble sugar contents of addition dehulled (19.26mg/g ) and polished(18.19mg/g ) adlay powders toasts are similar but significantly higher then the content of white toast (8.26mg/g ). In addition to, the both contents of 5'-nucleotides and free amino acids of three kind toasts are in descending order of dehulled adlay powder toast (29.18 μg/g and 32.14 mg/g) and polished adlay powder toast (28.99 μg/g and 29.72 mg/g ) and then white toast (18.67 μg/g and 18.17 mg/g ). Therefore, by adding the dehulled and polished adalay powders can enhance palatable taste of toast further improve its flavor and nutritional values.After 8 day storage, the total plate counts of both dehulled and polished adlay powder toasts are obviously higher than that of white toast. Furthermore, with regard to the hedonic scores in sensory evaluation, all pieces are similar in mouth feel. According to the functional characteristic, the contents of coixenolide of both dehulled and polished adlay powders are higher than that of flour. Furthermore, the contents of coixenolideof three kinds of dough are similar, however, the content of coixenolide of dehulled adlay powders toast is the highest, and followed by polished adlay powders toast.With regard to the main finding of this research, it can be concluded that addition the dehulled and polished adlay powders to toast not only can improve the healthy value of toast, but also provide a wide variety of chooses of healthier toasts for customers.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/52066
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