Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/52074
標題: Effect of fermentation by Rhizopus spp. on antioxidative properties and functional component productions of various rice substrates
以根黴菌發酵不同米基質對其抗氧化性質及機能性成分生成之影響
作者: 黃千芸
Huang, Chien-Yun
關鍵字: Rice substrates
米基質
Rhizopus spp.
antioxidative activites
functional components
functional beverages
根黴菌
抗氧化能力
機能性成分
機能性飲品
出版社: 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
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摘要: 本研究以蓬萊米、發芽糙米、黑糯米及米糠為原料,接種根黴菌 (Rhizopus spp.) 進行糖化並發酵,期能提升其抗氧化活性及機能性物質之含量,並探討開發成營養豐富,風味特殊之氣泡飲品或濃縮飲品的潛力。 首先以3株根黴菌以不同接種方式進行固態發酵(米麴) 或液態發酵 (以10 % 經滅菌之米粉為基質) 。結果顯示皆在培養72小時後之米麴有最高之澱粉酶及酸性蛋白酶活性,其中又以R. oryzae NCH-1以菌絲懸浮液接種者最佳,因此以固態發酵三日作為發酵條件。在糖化暨發酵條件方面,在綜合葡萄糖、胺基態氮及可滴定酸含量變化後,發現以45℃ 下、水解15 小時在各項水解產物的表現量較佳,故作為米基質之糖化暨發酵條件。而糖化暨發酵過程中微生物之生長,發現葡萄糖胺含量(代表菌絲量)及乳酸菌數皆在前5小時快速上升,然後直到10至15小時明顯趨緩。最終葡萄糖胺含量為 9.71 - 16.87 (mg/mL) ,乳酸菌數為5.85 – 5.97 Log CFU/mL。 不同米基質經糖化暨發酵後,機能性成分 GABA 、有機酸及酚酸皆有明顯提升之現象。植酸酶活性以及無機磷含量亦上升,推論係植酸逐漸被水解因而含量減少;而脂肪酸含量則明顯降低,可能和植酸減少致使環境中金屬螯合能力降低,最後導致油脂氧化有關。至於在總膳食纖維方面,只有米糠組在經糖化暨發酵後有顯著提升之現象。在抗氧化能力變化方面,發現米糠之糖化暨發酵液有最佳之DPPH自由基清除能力及還原力,其次則為黑糯米、發芽糙米及白米,推測與多酚類物質釋放多寡有關,但亞鐵離子螯合能力則由於植酸被水解而明顯下降。 SOD 活性上升,可能和糖化暨發酵液中微生物之生長有關。 在感官品評方面,一般發酵飲品組是以黑糯米為基質進行糖化暨發酵時整體喜好性最佳;而氣泡發酵飲品組則以發芽糙米為基質者最佳,分數皆達5.6以上。結果顯示消費者對於米穀類基質經根黴菌糖化暨發酵後,無論是一般口感或是氣泡口感,接受程度皆良好。
Fungal strains Rhizopus spp. with enzymatic activities were used to hydrolyze various kinds of rice including polished rice, germinated brown rice, black glutinous rice and rice bran, in this study. Furthermore, effects of the hydrolysis reactions on enhancing the antioxidative activities and production of some functional bioactive carbonated fermented drink were investigated. Performance of three strains of Rhizopus spp. were evaluated by growing them on rice powder in solid state fermentation (rice-koji) or by shaken flasks using 10 % sterilized rice powder as substrate. Results showed that high enzymatic activities were obtained when rice-koji was incubated for 3 days, especially for those using mycelial form of R. oryzae NCH-1 as inoculant. Thus, rice koji prepared by growing R. oryzae NCH-1 on rice powder using solid state fermentation for 3 days was chosen for subsequent experiment due to its balanced activities of both amylase and acid protease. The optimal saccharifying conditions for rice substrates catalyzed by rice koji were determined as incubating at 45℃ for 15 hours. The highest glucose content, amino nitrogen content and titratable content obtained were 16 %, 0.129 % and 0.374 %, respectively. R. oryzae NCH-1 (determined by glucosamine content) and lactic acid bacteria showed higher growth rates in first 5 hours, followed by a slow and steady growth. The final glucosamine content and viable count of lactic acid bacteria were 9.71 - 16.87 (mg/mL) and 5.85 – 5.97 Log CFU/mL. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), organic acids and phenolic acids contents had increased during saccharification / fermentation, while contents of phytic acid decreased, accompanied by increase in inorganic phosphate content. Amounts of fatty acids decreased due to the hydrolysis of phytic acid which in turn lowered the chelating ability and caused lipid oxidation during saccharification / fermentation of different rice substrate. The total dietary fiber content increased for that using rice bran as substrate. Moreover, the DPPH scavenging effect, reducing power and SOD activity were increased for all kinds of rice used, due to the liberation of phenolic compounds and growth of microorganisms. Among them, rice bran hydrolysate showed the highest antioxidative activites. Finally, results of sensory evaluation based on the comsumer preference test, the fermented beverage prepared by black glutinous rice showed the highest score, while germinated brown rice had the highest score in making carbonated and fermented beverages; however, both of them had scores above 5.6. The results of the consumer preference test revealed that the flavor of these fermented drinks, either plain or carbonated, was well-accepted by consumers. Thus, the potential for developing the fermented rice drinks to a functional beverage is great.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/52074
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