Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/52088
標題: Preparation and Application of Huanglian Microemulsion as the Chinese Medicine Dressing for Cold Noodles, in Order to Extend Shelf- Life and Enhance Herbal Favor
製備並應用黃連微米乳化液為涼麵的中藥調味料,以延長其保存期限並增加風味
作者: 尹心怡
Yin, Hsin-Yi
關鍵字: 黃連
Huanglian
微乳化液
鮮食
抑菌
安定性
偽三相圖
Huanglian microemulsion
Ready to Eat
antibacterial
stability
pseudo-ternary phase diagram
出版社: 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
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摘要: 近年來因國人飲食習慣的改變,外食人口的急增,超商所販售的鮮食產品已成為國人正餐的主要選擇之ㄧ。鮮食食品強調其新鮮度與即食性,販售種類包含壽司、飯糰、手捲、三明治、便當及涼麵等,而上述鮮食產品也會出現於傳統的早餐店。一般鮮食產品在運送或販售的溫度是處於4至18℃,故易因此期間的處理不當,造成微生物的污染而使產品品質降低,並極可能引起食品中毒事件的發生。為避免此類問題在涼麵產品的出現,本研究將以黃連製成一黃連微乳化液,作為涼麵的調味醬料,以保持涼麵的新鮮度及增加風味,並期達到養生的功效。本研究首先探討黃連的萃取條件與黃連微乳化液(HME)製備之最適化,其次分析HME的形成率及抗菌力,並分別在4、18和27℃下儲藏7天探討其安定性,最後將HME應用於涼麵上分析其抑菌能力,並進行感官品評試驗以了解消費者的接受度。結果顯示5 g黃連粉末於25 mL去離子水中以超音波萃取可達最高的小檗鹼濃度(7.3 mg/mL),且具最佳之抗菌能力。在HME製程中以界面活性劑及共界面活性劑體積比(Smix)為2:1所形成的乳化區域最大,而製成最穩定的HME混合比例為油相:水相: Smix = 0.72: 0.18: 0.1。此外,以高壓均質方式於500 bar作用2分鐘即可使HME粒徑由1 µm 下降到200-300 nm,並維持HME中高濃度的小檗鹼含量。未稀釋的HME具最佳的抗菌能力,抗菌效率為Salmonella enterica> Bacillus cereus> Staphylococcus aureus> Escherichia coli。當HME應用於涼麵上在室溫作用8小時後,與控制組(未添加HME)菌數相較,其菌數下降一個Log,且在18℃作用12小時內仍有抑菌效果。此外,HME的粒徑、黏度、色度以及小檗鹼含量不隨儲藏天數及溫度而改變,代表其在品質穩定性佳。另外,將製成的HME搭配兩種醬汁進行品評,大部分品評者仍感受到微帶苦味,但樣品259(油: PHME; 醬汁: 十全大補)有2.4%比例是很喜歡,代表仍有族群偏好此種類型的涼麵。由本研究結果可以得知HME具有良好的抗菌力與產品安定性,可開發為保持涼麵新鮮度的的天然中藥醬汁。
In recent years, people in Taiwan prefer to choose the “Ready to Eat” as their meals due to the change in dietary habits. The products of “Ready to Eat” emphasize on their freshness and speed of preparation. They are mainly sold in convenient stores, and have various items including sushi, rice and vegetable rolls, sandwiches, lunch boxes, soba, hand scrolls and so on; these products are also often seen in the traditional breakfast shops. The products of “Foods to Go” are usually kept at 4-18℃ during transportation or when waiting to be sold. In these periods, the quality of products may decrease due to contamination by microorganisms. The food may also trigger food poisoning at times. Therefore, the objective of this study is to prepare a kind of Chinese medicine dressing using Huanglian microemulsion (HME) to preserve the cold noodles, improve the flavor, and enhance the health condition of consumers. The first step in this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of Huanglian and production of HME, followed by analyzing the formation and antimicrobial ability of HME. Moreover, HME was added into cold noodles to evaluate its antimicrobial activity, and analyze its stability for a 7-day storage at 4, 18, or 27℃. In addition, a sensory evaluation of HME was conducted in order to estimate its acceptance by the consumers. The results showed that five grams of Huanglian powder extracted with 25 mL of distilled water using a sonicator achieved the saturated concentration for berberine (7.3 mg/mL) and had a better antibacterial ability. The optimal ratios (Smix) of surfactant/co-surfactant at 2:1 had the most extensive area of emulsion phase (E phase) and the optimal volume ratio to prepare HME was “oil: water: Smix = 0.72:0.18: 0.1”. Moreover, HME was homogenized at 500 bar for 2 min, and the size of HNE was decreased from 1 µm to about 200-300 nm. There was no influence on the berberine concentration of HME after the above homogenization. Furthermore, the antibacterial ability of undiluted HME was Salmonella enterica> Bacillus cereus> Staphylococcus aureus> Escherichia coli. As HME was applied to cold noodles to react at RT for 8 hours, it could decrease to one Log (CFU/mL) of the control group (not adding HME), and still hold its antibacterial ability within 12 h at 18℃. Additionally, the duration of storage (1-7 days) and various temperatures (4, 18, and 27℃) had no effect on the size, viscosity, color, and berberine content of HME. Finally, HME was combined with two different sources and was tested by people. Most people still tasted the bitterness of HME; however, there was a 2.4% of participating people who liked NO. 259 (oil: PHME; sauce: Shiquan Dabu). The results indicated that there were still some people who accepted the HME infused cold noodles. In conclusion, this experiment has proved that high pressure homogenization was an effective method to produce HME with high stability and furthermore, HME had good antimicrobial activity to inhibit the growth of microorganisms on cold noodles.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/52088
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