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標題: 本土性家禽球蟲動物用多價混和疫苗之開發 (II)
Development of Avian Coccidiosis Multivalent Vaccine in Taiwan (II)
作者: 王俊秀
關鍵字: 畜牧獸醫類
摘要: 球蟲症對家禽產業造成之損失甚大, 雞球蟲輕度感染時通常不發病, 只有在混和感染或嚴重感染時才發病.到目前為止, 球蟲主要的控制方法一直為化學療法.球蟲卵囊對一般之消毒劑及外界環境之變化具有極強的抵抗力, 因此很容易造成再感染.目前預防雞球蟲病之唯一方法是在飼料中添加抗球蟲藥, 以抑制雞腸道黏膜上皮細胞內球蟲之發育.但是藥物的長期使用容易造成藥物殘留及產生抗藥性, 因此許多學者進行球蟲免疫之研究, 希望以免疫方法來控制本病以防止球蟲嚴重感染所造成之損失, 並減少藥物使用所發生之殘留問題及對環境之污染.目前國內尚無有關球蟲疫苗之實際應用, 惟國外已有多種混和株種之疫苗可添加於飲水或飼料中, 然而仍有諸多問題如: 活蟲免疫有爆發全面感染之危險、免疫接種時會影響增重、免疫力無法持久等.臭氧( Ozone, O? )是氧分子的同素異形體, 為極強的氧化劑.臭氧具有非常強的生物致死性, 可殺滅水中的細菌和使病毒去活化, 目前已廣泛應用於水質處理.本研究曾嘗試利用臭氧將球蟲卵囊加以處理, 觀察其對球蟲之抑制狀況.結果顯示臭氧確實具有明顯程度的抑殺球蟲作用, 使其芽胞化比率明顯降低, 此外實驗感染時雞之死亡率及糞便中所排出之卵囊數亦較少.然而單純使用臭氧作為球蟲卵囊殺滅法, 尚無法完全抑殺球蟲卵囊之芽胞化作用使其不具感染性及病害性.因此若配合其他理學或化學因子( 如X-Ray、UV light或其他消毒藥劑 )合併使用時, 或許可獲得更有效的相加或相乘效果.本研究將嘗試利用臭氧併用常用之消毒劑來處理球蟲卵囊, 以探討其對球蟲卵囊之殺滅效果及應用於預防球蟲感染之可行性.
Avian coccidiosis are known to have acute and/or chronic manifestations.Acute form of the disease is generally caused by heavy infection of Eimeria tenella or E.necatrix.Oocysts of avian coccidian are very resistant to disinfectant as well as to the elements of the natural environment.At present, coccidiosis in the field is being controlled by the addition of coccidiostat in the feed, but excessive use of such drug has led to the development of drug resistance and drug residue.Therefore, development of a vaccine could be an option.Ozone is a very strong oxidant and has been used under aqueous condition to kill bacteria and inactivate virus.In our study, fresh oocysts were treated with ozone and then incubated under fix condition, the sporulation of oocysts was found to be inhibited significantly.On the other hands, sporulated oocysts were infected chickens after treating with ozone, and the mortality of chicken and the numbers of oocysts excreted from feces were decreased obviously.The objectives of this project includes the isolation and maintenance of avian coccidian, observing the effect of ozone and disinfectants treatment on their oocysts by evaluating their viability in vivo and in vitro.Ozone and disinfectants-attenuated oocysts will be evaluated for their ability to confer protection on treated chickens by challenging with fresh untreated oocysts.The ultimate aim of this study is to develop a avian coccidial vaccine to reduce the excessive use of drug additives.
其他識別: 90農科-2.1.3-檢-B1(6)
Appears in Collections:獸醫學系所



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