Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/52616
標題: 本土性家禽球蟲動物用多價混和疫苗之開發(III)
Development of Avian Coccidiosis Multivalent Vaccine in Taiwan (III)
作者: 王俊秀
董光中
關鍵字: 生物技術, 畜牧獸醫類
應用研究
摘要: Avian coccidiosis are known to have acute and/or chronic manifestation. Acute coccidiosis is caused by the infection of Eimeria tenella or E. necatrix, resulting in hemorrhagic diarrhea and death of avian. Coccidial oocytes have high resistance to disinfectant and the change of environment, therefore avian are very easily re-infected by coccidium. The unique method used to prevent coccidial infection is to add anti-coccidium drugs to feeds to reduce the coccidial development on avian intestinal epithelium cells. However, the using of anti-coccidium drugs easily results in the remain of drugs and the production of drug resistance. Therefore, the development of coccidial vaccine can prevent the infection of coccidium and reduce the use of drugs. Ozone is a very strong oxidant and has been used under aqueous condition to kill bacteria and inactivate virus. In our study, fresh oocysts were treated with ozone and then incubated under fix condition, the sporulation of oocysts was found to be inhibited significantly. On the other hand, sporulated oocysts were infected chickens after treated with ozone, and the mortality of chicken and the numbers of oocysts excreted from feces were decreased obviously. The aim of this study is to develop a avian coccidial vaccine to reduce the excessive use of drug additives.
雞球蟲病就其經過可分為急性與慢性,但輕度感染時通常不發病,只有在混和或濃厚感染時才發病。急性型是由Eimeria tenella或E. necatrix之濃厚感染所造成,以出血性下痢便為特徵,發症後2-3天即死亡。球蟲卵囊對一般之消毒藥及外界環境之變化具有極強的抵抗力,幾乎不可能殺滅雞場內之卵囊,因此很容易造成再感染。目前預防雞球蟲病之唯一方法是在飼料中添加抗球蟲劑,以抑制雞腸道黏膜上皮細胞內球蟲之發育。但是藥物的使用容易造成藥物殘留及產生抗藥性,因此開發球蟲之生物疫苗,或許可以防止球蟲嚴重感染所造成之損失,並減少藥物使用所發生之殘留問題,以減少養雞業者之損失。目前國內尚未研發有關球蟲疫苗的實際應用,但是國外現已有多種混和株種之疫苗添加於飲水或飼料中,其對於抑制球蟲病發生之效果與使用藥物之結果大約相同,如此可以減少藥物的使用,對於藥物殘留所遺留之問題可以獲得解決。臭氧(Ozone, O3)是氧分子的同素異形體,其氧化能力很強,在鹼性溶液中之還原電位為2.07V,僅次於氟(Fluorine, F2)、氫氧自由基(Hydroxyl radical, OH)和原子態氧(Atomic oxygen, O),是極強的氧化劑。臭氧具非常有效的生物致死性,可殺滅水中的細菌和使病毒去活化,其可通過細胞壁直接接觸細胞膜,破壞細胞膜的醣蛋白及醣脂質,使其酵素系統失去原有之效能。Korich等人(1990)曾發現以1ppm (1mg/L)的臭氧作用5分鐘可使 90%的Cryptosporidium parvum卵囊失去感染能力。本研究首先繼代增殖台灣常見的球蟲種株,以臭氧進行曝氣處理後觀察其對球蟲卵囊之影響,然後將臭氧曝氣處理過之卵囊感染雞隻以了解其能否感染雞隻而造成雞隻發病死亡。然後以少量經臭氧處理之球蟲卵囊來免疫雞隻,五日後再感染正常的球蟲卵囊,以觀察經臭氧處理之球蟲卵囊對正常雞隻的保護能力,作為開發球蟲疫苗之依據。本計畫希望可以開發出具保護能力之球蟲疫苗,以減少藥物之使用量降低藥物殘留之情形。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/52616
其他識別: 91農科-3.1.3-檢-B1(6)
文章連結: http://grbsearch.stpi.narl.org.tw/GRB/result.jsp?id=935854&plan_no=91%E8%BE%B2%E7%A7%91-3.1.3-%E6%AA%A2-B1%286%29&plan_year=91&projkey=PG9306-1755&target=plan&highStr=*&check=0&pnchDesc=%E6%9C%AC%E5%9C%9F%E6%80%A7%E5%AE%B6%E7%A6%BD%E7%90%83%E8%9F%B2%E5%8B%95%E7%89%A9%E7%94%A8%E5%A4%9A%E5%83%B9%E6%B7%B7%E5%92%8C%E7%96%AB%E8%8B%97%E4%B9%8B%E9%96%8B%E7%99%BC%EF%BC%88III%EF%BC%89
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