請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5294
標題: 紫色不含硫光合菌利用高溫好氧污泥消化出流水產生氫氣之研究
Hydrogen production from thermophilic aerobic digested sludge supernatant by purple nonsulfur bacteria
作者: 蔡佳玲
Tsai, Chia-Ling
關鍵字: 紫色不含硫菌
purple nonsulfur bacteria
thermophilic aerobic digestion
thermophilic aerobic bacteria
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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摘要: 高溫好氧消化系統是一個可以有效將污泥減量的程序,而當系統中的氧氣受到限制的時候,微生物的代謝途徑會改變,使槽內累積大量的有機酸。微生物產氫為現今新興的產氫方式,是一項對環境友善的技術,其中紫色不含硫光合菌產氫相當受到重視。有機酸為紫色不含硫菌產生氫氣重要的基質,因此若能結合高溫污泥消化以及光合菌產氫的程序,則可同時達到廢棄物處理減量以及能源回收的目的。 本研究先行探討提升高溫污泥消化槽有機酸累積量的條件。首先提升污泥起始的SS濃度,並添加固定的菌量觀察有機酸的累積情形。當起始SS濃度為13000 mg/L時,添加645.4 mg/L的純菌株Geobacillus thermocatenulatus S2有最高的累積產酸量1105 mg/L,yield達0.28 mg VFAs/△mg VSS,且有最高的VFAs-C/NH4+-N比3.1。此外,並探討有供氧及未供氧對有機酸累積的影響,結果顯示有供氧的條件下雖然有機酸的yield較低但反應較快,且氨氮的累積濃度也較低。而在污泥連續流的試驗中顯示,系統在連續流的操作下若中途未發生塞管或是機器故障,可穩定的操作達120 hr,且在HRT為24 hr的時候有較佳的有機酸累積量(330 mg/L)及yield(1.4 mg VFAs/△mg VSS)。 污泥出流水中含有高濃度的氨氮,對光合菌產氫是一個重要的抑制因子,故利用在鹼性條件下曝空氣來去除氨氮。由結果可知在pH值為12時有最佳的氨氮去除效果,17 hr內即可將氨氮由原先的76.8 mg/L降至偵測極限以下。然而當氨氮濃度大於100 mg/L時則效果不佳,曝氣28 hr僅去除掉一半的氨氮(由137 mg/L減少到64 mg/L),且有機酸濃度會由400 mg/L下降至170.6 mg/L。 利用污泥出流水做為光合菌產氫的基質需要經過前處理以降低氨氮的濃度。紫色不含硫菌Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP 3-5以曝氣去除氨氮後的污泥出流水做為基質可成功地產生氫氣,累積產氫量可達25.8 ml(瓶頂空間50 ml)。將污泥出流水與含有高濃度有機酸及低氨氮濃度的酒糟廢水混合可有效提升有機酸濃度及降低氨氮濃度,成為適合光合菌產氫的基質。結果顯示當酒糟廢水:污泥出流水=4:10時有最佳的產氫效果,最大累積產氫量可達263.9 ml(氫氣濃度66%),產氫速率為12.4 ml H2/L-culture/hr。 單純利用酒糟廢水稀釋亦可作為光合菌產氫的基質。批次實驗結果指出,當酒糟廢水含量為40%的時候,有最佳的產氫效率,且不會有遲滯期,最大累積產氫量可達278.3 ml(氫氣濃度69.6%),產氫速率為13.06 ml H2/L-culture/hr。此外,比較混合廢水及單純酒廠廢水稀釋的產氫效率,可發現單純以酒廠廢水稀釋有較快的產氫速率,但混合廢水有較大的累積產氫量。
Thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) which applies thermotolerant microbes and their extracellular enzymes to degrade waste activated sludge (WAS) is considerably new and dynamic technique. It was mentioned that when TAD process was modified to be operated under microaerobic condition, the accumulation of volatile fatty acid (VFAs) was expected. Hydrogen production by microbes is a new technology for hydrogen production. One of the most important hydrogen producing bacteria is purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria. VFAs are important substrates for purple nonsulfur bacteria to grow and produce hydrogen. Thus, combining the modified TAD process with photohydrogen production makes sludge removal and energy recycle possible. In order to increase the accumulation concentration of VFAs in TAD reactor, first we raised the initial concentration of the SS. When initial SS concentration of sludge is 13000 mg/L, and the inoculation concentration of Geobacillus thermocatenulatus S2 was 645.4 mg/L, the accumulated concentration of VFAs was 1105 mg/L, which was the highest. The yield and C/N ratio was 0.28 mgVFAs/△mg VSS and 3.1, respectively. Second, the experiments with or without aeration was discussed. The result showed that TAD system with aeration had better reaction rate. Furthermore, the 2 L TAD reactor was operated in a continuous model at 65℃. The result indicated that when HRT is 24 hr, the accumulated concentration of VFAs was 330 mg/L, which was higher than when HRT was 12 hr. The NH4+-N concentration of TAD effluent was too high to inhibiting the hydrogen production of purple nonsulfur bacteria. The pH value of the effluent was adjusted to be alkaline and aerated to remove ammonia. The result showed that when pH value was 12.0, NH4+-N concentration could be removed under detection limitation within 17 hr. However, when NH4+-N concentration of the TAD effluent was higher than 100 mg/L, the efficiency of aeration was low. Moreover, the VFAs concentration of the TAD effluent decreased. Hydrogen production by Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP 3-5 using the pretreated effluent of TAD was investigated. The highest accumulated hydrogen volume was 25.8 ml (while the headspace was 50 ml) when using the TAD effluent which has already removed NH4+-N by aeration. On the other hand, we found that the distillery wastewater contained high concentration of VFAs and low concentration of NH4+-N, so we mixed the distillery wastewater with the effluent of TAD. The result showed that the best ratio of distillery wastewater to the effluent of TAD for H2 production was 2: 5, and the highest accumulated H2 volume and hydrogen production rate (HPR) was 263.9 ml and 12.4 ml H2/L-culture/hr, respectively (while the headspace was 150 ml). We also used the dilution distillery wastewater as substrate for hydrogen production. The result indicated that when content of distillery wastewater was 40%, the highest accumulated H2 volume and HPR was 278.3 ml and 13.06 ml H2/L-culture/hr, respectively. Furthermore, comparing the H2 producing efficiency of mixed wastewater and diluted distillery wastewater, it was observed that the diluted distillery had higher HPR, but the mixed wastewater had higher accumulated H2 volume.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5294
其他識別: U0005-1607200715080300
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