請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/54186
標題: 台灣昆蟲誌-半翅目- 木蝨總科、蠟蟬總科與陸生虫春象
Insect Fauna of Taiwan-Hemiptera, Parts Psylloidea, Fulgoroidea and Terrestrial Bugs
作者: 楊曼妙
關鍵字: 生物科學類
摘要: 林奈氏所建立的半翅目(廣義)是泛指蚜蟲、粉蝨、介殼蟲、木蝨、蠟蟬、角蟬、葉蟬、蟬、沫蟬與.象等具有粗壯口喙包裹著大、小顎口針形成刺吸式口器的類群,其種類龐雜與鞘翅目、鱗翅目、膜翅目及雙翅目並列為昆蟲綱前五大目,計有144科約90,000種,分屬四個亞目,即腹吻亞目 (Sternorrhyncha)、頸吻亞目 (Auchenorrhyncha)、鞘吻亞目 (Coleorrhyncha)及異翅亞目 (Heteroptera)。大多種類皆為植食性(含食菌性),吸食植物韌皮部、木質部或其他輸導組織,唯在異翅亞目某些類群為肉食性或以脊椎動物的血液為食。除極地外,半翅目分佈於世界各大地理區系,於熱帶及亞熱帶種類尤為豐富;棲息於多樣的環境,多數為陸生,僅異翅亞目另有水生與半水生的類群。台灣地區的半翅目昆蟲目前已記錄有71科1600餘種,其科級比例佔全世界近50%。中興大學昆蟲學系自1980年代著手於半翅目多個類群的分類研究,先後全力投入台灣木蝨總科(Psylloidea)、蠟蟬總(Fulgoroidea)、及沫蟬總科(Cercopoidea)所屬之各科群的分類修訂,尤其著重在若蟲特徵的建立及成蟲性器之研究,迄今不僅建立重要的基礎資料,亦保存許多標本(含模式標本)於中興大學昆蟲學系標本館。由於台灣仍未有完整的昆蟲誌出版,本計畫擬以上述工作為基礎,並新加入部分異翅亞目陸生類群,以三年時間整合既有資料、增修新發表資訊或重新撰寫,為台灣半翅目昆蟲誌工作奠基,完成可發表的資訊。由於台灣半翅目不同類群的已知分類資料完整性並不一致,本計畫對於已知較多的腹吻與頸吻亞目,以及所知較少的異翅亞目採取不同策略,但平行發展。擬於第一年,撰寫木蝨總科與稻蝨科昆蟲誌,共計約300種,並同時建立台灣異翅亞目名錄與書目文獻資料,以供後續陸生.象昆蟲誌之編撰;第二年,接續完成蠟蟬總科其他科群之昆蟲誌編撰,擬包含小頭飛蝨科 (Achilidae)、長翅飛蝨科 (Derbidae)、脊唇蠟蟬科(Nogodinidae)、廣翅蠟蟬科 (Ricaniidae)、粗腳飛蝨科 (Lophopidae)、瓢蠟蟬科 (Issidae)、象蠟蟬 (Dityopharidae)與蠟蟬科 (Fulgoridae),共計約280種;另針對異翅亞目陸生種類進行編撰,擬包含奇頭.下目之奇.科 (Enicocepholomorpha: Enicocephalidae),鞭.下目之櫛角鞭.科、鞭.科與毛角鞭.科 (Dipsocoromorpha: Ceratocombidae, Dipsocoridae, Schizopteridae)與臭蟲下目之捷.科、擬刺.科 (Cimicomorpha: Velocipedidae, Nabidae)等種類,約50種;第三年將以異翅亞目為主,接續編撰異翅亞目陸生種類,擬包含臭蟲下目獵.科 (Reduviidae),.下目扁.總科 (Aradoidea)、.總科 (Pentatomoidea)與星.總科 (Pyrrhocoroidea),約200種。本研究將提供台灣半翅目昆蟲誌長期研究之基礎。
Hemiptera sensu lato was first established by Carl Linnaeus which comprises well-known aphids, whiteflies, mealybugs, scale insects, jumping plant lice, planthoppers, treehoppers, leafhoppers, cicada, spittlebugs and true bugs. They share a unique structure of the segmented rostrum with retrievable pairs of mandible and maxillary stylets and is called 「sucking beak」. As a diverse group ranked as one of the top five species-rich orders, together with Coleoptera, Lepidopetera, Hymenoptera and Diptera of Insecta, Hemiptera comprises about 90,000 species in 144 families. Hemiptera is subdivided into four suborders, namely Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha, Coleorryhncha and Heteroptera. Most of them are phytophagous (including mycetophagous) feeding on the phloem, xylem, or other vascular system of plants. Some particular groups of Heteroptera are predators of arthropods or parastites of vertebrates, feeding on their blood. They are widely distributed in all major biogeographic regions except for the polar regions, and especially diverse in tropics and subtropics. They occupy many types of niches, most are terrestrial but some are well-adapted for aquatic and semiaquatic habitats, occurring only in special groups of Heteroptera. In Taiwan, there are 71 families which represent almost 50 percent of world families and more than 1,600 recorded species. Fore more than two decades, the Laboratory of Insect Taxonomy at the Department of Entomology, National Chung Hsing University (NCHU) has been working on the systematics of many taxa of Hemiptera. Revisional work with emphasis on nymphal characters and adult genitalia has been done successively in families of Psylloidea, Fulgoroidea, and Cercopoidea. As a consequence, thousands of specimens including types were deposited at the insect museum of NCHU. Further extensive work on the comparative morphology and evolution of male genitalia in Hemiptera sensu lato were established and continued. For the entomological study in Taiwan, there is no major piece of faunal work published so far. The above solid information provides a good basis for initiating a series of insect fauna of Taiwan. In this study, we proposed a three-year project to extensively synthesize the published works and recent taxonomic information on the above groups and part of terrestrial heteropteran taxa to compile a publishable fauna of Hemiptera in Taiwan. Since there is differential knowledge on various taxa of Hemiptera in Taiwan, research strategies for the better know groups will be differ, but parallel, from the less known ones. In the first year, we will accomplish the fauna of Psylloidea (suborder Sternorrhyncha) and Delphacidae (suborder Auchenorrhyncha). An estimate of 300 species will be included. Besides, we will compile a checklist of the true bug (suborder Heteroptera) and collect most of bibliographies of heteropterans of Taiwan as a preparation for further faunal work. In the second year, we will continue to work on other families of Fulgoroidea, including of Achilidae, Derbidae, Nogodinidae, Ricaniidae, Lophopidae, Issidae, Dityopharidae and Fulgoridae, which will include approximately 280 species. Besides, several terrestrial groups in Heterpoptera will be also undertaken inclusive of Enicocephalidae (Enicocephallomorpha), Ceratocombidae, Dipsocoridae and Nabidae of Diposorocomorpha, and Velocipedidae and Nabidae of Cimicomorpha, with an estimate for about 50 species. In the third year, the study will mainly focus on Heteroptera which will include 200 species of Reduviidae in Cimicomorpha, Aradoidea, Pentatomoidea, and Pyrrhocoroidea in Pentatomomoprha. The current project will serve as an initiatory work for launching a long-term research on the fauna of Hemiptera in Taiwan.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/54186
其他識別: NSC96-2621-B005-008
文章連結: http://grbsearch.stpi.narl.org.tw/GRB/result.jsp?id=1527712&plan_no=NSC96-2621-B005-008&plan_year=96&projkey=PA9701-0022&target=plan&highStr=*&check=0&pnchDesc=%E5%8F%B0%E7%81%A3%E6%98%86%E8%9F%B2%E8%AA%8C-%E5%8D%8A%E7%BF%85%E7%9B%AE-+%E6%9C%A8%E8%9D%A8%E7%B8%BD%E7%A7%91%E3%80%81%E8%A0%9F%E8%9F%AC%E7%B8%BD%E7%A7%91%E8%88%87%E9%99%B8%E7%94%9F%E8%99%AB%E6%98%A5%E8%B1%A1


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