請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/54856
標題: 園藝作物非疫生產點之建立與維持
Establishment and Maintenance of Non-Quarantin Production Area in Hoticultural Crops
作者: 鍾文鑫
關鍵字: 應用研究
Tortricidae
植物保護類
海拔梯度
寄主偏好
溫帶果樹
葉蟎檢疫
監測
木瓜
東方果實蠅
瓜實蠅
果實成熟度
蝴蝶蘭
真菌病害
外銷盆花
線蟲
滅除技術
細菌病害
綜合管理技術
Altitutde Gradient
Host Preferance
Temperate Fruit
Spider Mite
Quarantine
Monitoring
Papaya
Oriental Fruit Fly
Melon Fly
Fruit Ripeness
Phalaenopsis
Fungal Diseases
Exported Potted Flower
Nematode
Eradication Technology
Bacterial Diseases
Integrated Pest Management
摘要: 1. 台灣果樹蛾類非疫狀態之建立與維持:台灣產水蜜桃之東方果實蛾現已被證實存在於中部,但其分布格局,在不同海拔與地區是否存在物候與危害情況上的差異尚無任何資訊。本年度研究將依海拔選擇地重點地區進行研究,並確認台灣產族群是否在各種不同的薔薇科果樹(桃、梨、水蜜桃)上有不同的取食偏好與危害情形,以利未來後續防治工作之進行。 2. 溫帶果樹檢疫害蟎監測:本研究以蘋果、梨、桃、李類果園為主要目標,監測台灣地區溫帶果樹園中及其附近林木所發生為害的葉蟎種類,期以菟集下列資訊:1)偵測是否有新入侵的種類,以適時喚起緊急處理和應變工作;2)瞭解往昔入侵種類在台灣的分布擴散情形;3)瞭解溫帶果樹園中發生為害的葉蟎種類,為進出口檢疫建立對外交涉所需之基本資料。 3. 外銷木瓜成熟度與瓜果實蠅為害相關性探討及網室木瓜園內果實蠅發生監測:台灣為東方果實蠅及瓜實蠅疫區,而木瓜為此二害蟲之寄主,因此木瓜在外銷至非疫國前均需經過檢疫處理。目前使用之處理方法為蒸熱處理,以滅除瓜內可能存在的果實蠅幼蟲或卵。此種處理方法雖可達到進口國的檢疫要求,但同時卻也影響木瓜採收成熟度、降低後熟品質、增加生產成本及降低國際競爭力。目前以網室栽培木瓜廣為農民採用,網室可以有效阻隔瓜果實蠅為害木瓜,降低瓜實攜帶檢疫害蟲之風險。但是在栽培過程中,農民需經常進出果園或者圍網如有破損,果實蠅仍有入侵之機會。果實蠅通常在果實達到一定成熟度後才會產卵為害,如能確定木瓜採收時的成熟度不會遭致果實蠅侵染,則結合網室之保護作用及果實之不適產卵特性,可符合進口國的檢疫條件進而取代蒸熱處理。本計畫主要的工作項目為: (1) 繁殖供試用東方果實蠅及瓜實蠅; (2) 自外銷供果園選取不同成熟度木瓜並檢測果色、果實硬度、乙烯生成濃度; (3) 測試果實蠅在不同成熟度木瓜上之為害率; (4) 進行外銷網室木瓜供果園果實蠅發生監測。本研究將探明東方果實蠅及瓜實蠅在不同成熟度木瓜上之產卵為害情形,供界定外銷木瓜之安全採收成熟度。此外,將了解外銷網室木瓜供果園中瓜果實蠅之發生情形,提供改進果園設施防止其侵入之方法。依據試驗結果提出由生產管理達到零風險之害蟲檢疫條件,提供除蒸熱處理外另一種檢疫措施,可節省成本,並增加外銷競爭力。 4. 外銷花卉運輸期間病蟲害檢疫處理研發:近來,於輸美帶介質蝴蝶蘭與外銷以色列幸運竹,被輸入國海關查扣並檢驗出病蟲害,如蝴蝶蘭上圓跳蟲科的檢疫害蟲、Phoma屬與Phomoposis屬的真菌及細菌性褐斑病,另於國內多家生產外銷盆花蝴蝶蘭園所使用之栽培介質被檢驗出有葉芽線蟲屬之線蟲的存在。本計畫將針對外銷蝴蝶蘭及幸運竹園區作病蟲害相調查,了解園區內造成病蟲害的病原、密度及其發生生態,建立病原與害蟲的監測技術及防治策略。祈降低外銷蝴蝶蘭與幸運竹運輸期間檢疫病蟲害發生的風險,及建立非疫生產點技術。包括: (1) 調查重點外銷蝴蝶蘭園園區及介質中的有害生物相,進以篩選可抑制主要害蟲的藥劑,並建立外銷蝴蝶蘭園重要病蟲害防治曆; (2) 調查外銷蝴蝶蘭園栽培介質檢出線蟲之原因及篩選適當之滅除技術以完全根除線蟲的存在; (3) 調查造成蝴蝶蘭細菌性病害病原之來源,利用專一性核酸序列發展快速之偵測診斷技術;4)調查造成外銷蝴蝶蘭與幸運竹病害之真菌性病原、來源及發生生態,並尋有效防治方法與發展運輸期間之檢疫處理技術。
1.Establishment and maintenance of the pest moth free status in Taiwan fruit estates: Occurrence of OFM (Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta) in central Taiwan has recently been confirmed, while the distribution pattern and whether damage on peach fruit and phenology vary with latitudes and areas are still unknown. In this year we will carry out a study at selected areas with different altitudes, and confirm if the OFM populations in Taiwan have different preferences and damage towards peach and pear. The results will help further work on pest control and policy making.2.Monitoring on quarantine mite pests infesting temperate fruit trees: This research selects apple, pear, peach and plum as main targets, monitoring the spider mite species happened in the orchards of these temperate fruit trees and nearby areas. The purposes of this research are: 1. to early detect invading exotic spider mite species, 2. to know the disperse and distribution of exotic spider mite species that invaded Taiwan in earlier years; 3. to build up information on local spider mite pest species that infesting temperate fruit trees for the quarantine of both importing and exporting fruits.3.Relationships between papaya ripeness and fruit fly infestation and monitoring of the fruit flies occurred in papaya orchard under screenhouse cultivation: Oriental fruit fly and melon fly are present in Taiwan and papaya is the host of these two pests. Therefore, a quarantine treatment is required before the papaya allows exporting to the pest-free areas or countries. At present, vapor-heat treatment is employed to disinfest the eggs and larvae of the fruit flies that may exist in the fruit. Although the use of this treatment meets the requirement from the importing countries, it affects the ripeness level of papaya to be harvested, reduces the quality in fruit ripening, increases production costs, and reduces the competitiveness of exportation. The cultivation of papaya in screenhouse is well adopted by the growers, and the use of screenhouse effectively protects the papaya from infestation by the fruit flies and greatly reduces the risk that exporting papayas may carry quarantine pests. However, frequently getting in and out of the orchard or not taking good care of the screenhouse may provide the chance for fruit flies entering into the orchard. In general, the fruit flies lay eggs in the papaya fruits only when they reach preferred degree of ripeness. If we can make sure that the papaya is harvested at a safe ripening level and can avoid the infestation by the fruit flies under the protection of the screenhouse during the production period, the combination of these two applications may be an alternative, other than vapor-heat treatment, for quarantine requirement. The major working items of this project are: (1) maintaining a fruit fly colony for use, (2) determining the colorimetric values, fruit hardness, and generated ethylene concentrations, (3) determining rates of fruit fly infestation for the papayas with different degrees of ripeness, (4) monitoring the occurrence of fruit flies in screenhouse-cultivated papaya orchards. This study will document the stage of ripeness for papaya that harvested without the risk of infestation by the fruit flies, understand the effectiveness of screenhouse in the protection of papaya fruits and find the way to improve the protection structure of screenhouse. According to the research results, hopefully an alternative of quarantine treatment other than vapor-heat may be proposed and used to reduce the production costs and increase the competitiveness of exportation.4.Development of pest quarantine treatment of exported flowers during trasportation: Recently, the Phalaenopsis flowers with culture medium exported to American and luck bamboo exported to Israel were examined some quarantine pest, included Sminthuridae of insect, Phoma and Phomoposis of fungi, bacterial diseses. Moreover, the industry of exported potted flower has been impacted due to the nematodes have been examined in culture medium of export potted flower. This project will survey the pest flora of export Phalaenopsis flowers with cdulture medium and luck bamboo, identify the pest causing Phalaenopsis floweres and luck bamboo, comprehend the pest density and ecology, and establish the pest monitoring technology and protecting strategy. The object is to decrease the risk of quarantine pest occurrence in Phalaenopsis flowers and lack bamboo during transportation, and establish non-quaratine producing technology, including 1)survey the pest flora of exported Phalaenopsis flowers and development of the recommended measures and schedules and nonchemical control of pests were urgent requirement. The standard operation processes for pests control will be built up to produce pest-free orchids for exportation, 2) to find out the reason of existence of nematodes and to eradiate the nematode by using the proper technique, 3)to survey the inoculum sources of bacteria and develop the detecting technology to identify the bacteria causing Phalaenopsis, 4)to survey the fungal pathologens, inoculum sources and ecology, and to find out the protecting methods and quarantine treatment technology during transportation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/54856
其他識別: 96農科-14.4.1-檢-B2
文章連結: http://grbsearch.stpi.narl.org.tw/GRB/result.jsp?id=1496570&plan_no=96%E8%BE%B2%E7%A7%91-14.4.1-%E6%AA%A2-B2&plan_year=96&projkey=PW9611-1929&target=plan&highStr=*&check=0&pnchDesc=%E5%9C%92%E8%97%9D%E4%BD%9C%E7%89%A9%E9%9D%9E%E7%96%AB%E7%94%9F%E7%94%A2%E9%BB%9E%E4%B9%8B%E5%BB%BA%E7%AB%8B%E8%88%87%E7%B6%AD%E6%8C%81
顯示於類別:動物科學系

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