請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/54859
標題: 有害生物抗藥性調查與管制暨農藥合理化應用與管理
The Investigation and Control of Pesticide Resistance and the Reasonable Application and Management of Pesticides
作者: 李敏惠
關鍵字: 應用研究
Chilo Suppressalis Walker
植物保護類
二化螟
大螟
枯心
白穗
感受性
抗藥性
殺蟲劑抗藥性管理
芒果炭疽病菌
殺菌劑
QoI類
福壽螺
殺螺劑
蘇力菌
綠殭菌
混合複方
南黃薊馬
抗藥性
協力劑
美洲幼蟲病
蜜蜂
羥四環素
防治
柑橘
儲藏期病害
腐絕
抗藥性
Sesamia Inferens Walker
Dead-heart Tiller
White Head Tiller
Susceptibility
Insecticide Resistance
Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM)
Mango Anthracnose Fungi
Fungicides
QoIs
Apple Snails
Molluscicide
Bacillus Thuringiensis
Nomuraea Rileyi
Mixed Formulation
Thrips Palmi
Resistance
Synergist
American foulbrood
Honey Bee
Oxytetracycline
Control
Citrus
Postharvest Disease
Thiabendazole
Fungicide Resistance
摘要: 1. 福壽螺的抗藥性潛能及防治藥物開發(II):汎稱福壽螺的外來生物在本省記錄有三種,分別為福壽螺(Pomacea canaliculata)、梯狀福壽螺(Pomacea scalaris)、元寶螺(Pila leopordvillensis),其中只有福壽螺有較豐富之基礎研究,福壽螺的食性甚雜且繁殖力驚人,每年危害十萬公頃以上的農田,是台灣水生經濟作物的大患,目前防治福壽螺的藥劑只有聚乙醛及耐克螺,長期使用後,福壽螺是否已產生抗藥性,且對其施用的水域生態及其他生物的影響亦值得了解;加上在農民持續使用禁農藥三苯醋錫的情形下,福壽螺應有雄化現象,但是否如此也需要研究;既然三種福壽螺的分布、密度生態都不清楚,農田危害是單一或是多種也不知,防治效果自然受到影響。本計畫將評估福壽螺的抗藥性及開發防治藥物,進行1. 借由調查福壽螺雄化現象瞭解禁農藥三苯醋錫是否持續使用;2.評估福壽螺的抗藥性及福壽螺防治藥劑對其他水域生物的影響;3.研究福壽螺的種類分布、密度,以為調整防冶策略之基礎;4.研發防治福壽螺的新藥物;5.發展實驗新型殺螺及誘引藥劑。希望在兼顧農業生態環境的保育前提下,有效杜絶福壽螺對台灣水生經濟作物的危害。 2. 重要害蟲抗藥性管理與防治新策略-微生物製劑與化學藥劑混合複方之開發與應用(II):本研究主要是找尋藥劑間或微生物與化學藥劑混合複方對小菜蛾及青蔥甜菜夜蛾之協力效應,以開發新防治藥劑,研究重點包括 a. 化學藥劑複方對小菜蛾之藥效探討 b. 化學藥劑複方對青蔥甜菜夜蛾之藥效探討 c. 蘇力菌與化學藥劑混合對小菜蛾之協力作用 d. 綠彊菌與化學藥劑混合對青蔥甜菜夜蛾之協力作用。 3. 南黃薊馬抗藥性之調查及管理:自不同施藥歷史地區採集南黃薊馬,在室內建立其棲群,選用四種防治南黃薊馬之推薦藥劑以浸葉法進行生物檢測,由LC50評估南黃薊馬對四種藥劑(滅賜克、第滅寧、益達胺及覆滅蟎)產生抗藥性的現況,選取感受性較低的藥劑進行室內藥劑篩選以建立其抗藥性品系,加入不同協力劑進一步探討南黃薊馬之抗藥性機制。 4. 抗生素防治蜜蜂美洲幼蟲病的藥效與殘留量評估:美洲幼蟲病(American foulbrood, AFB)是台灣養蜂業最嚴重的病害,染病蜂群若無妥善處理,極易造成重大損失。目前,本病在台灣並無防治推薦藥劑,而部分國家則許可使用羥四環素(oxytetracycline)做為防治藥劑,本研究旨在探討本國使用羥四環素做為防治藥劑的適用性,重要工作項目如下: a. 病原菌對羥四環素的敏感性:收集並分離全國蜂蜜樣品中的美洲幼蟲病原菌50株以上,據以探討本土病原對羥四環素的敏感性,並製備孢子懸浮液做為蜂群接種源。 b. 羥四環素的藥效評估:蜂群餵飼含羥四環素50 mg 與100 mg的糖漿1次,施藥前後接種孢子以評估藥效。 c. 羥四環素的殘留檢測:試驗蜂群分別於施藥後採收蜂蜜、蜂王漿與蜂花粉,以高效液相層析儀檢測羥四環素的殘留量。本計畫預期建立安全有效的蜜蜂美洲幼蟲病防治策略。 5. 水稻害蟲抗藥性調查管理策略之研究:二化螟(Chilo suppressalis Walker)與大螟(Sesamia inferens Walker)是造成台灣一期與二期稻作枯心與白穗最主要的害蟲,當大量發生時,嚴重影響水稻的品質與產量。雖然目前有各種不同的害蟲管理策略,但是化學藥劑仍是害蟲防治最主要的方法。由於過度或錯誤使用殺蟲劑,往往造成嚴重的害蟲抗藥性問題,使原有的防治藥劑失效而必須使用更高的劑量或其他藥劑防治,不但增加成本,也對環境造成嚴重的污染與傷害。因此如何適時合理的使用正確有效的殺蟲劑已成為當前殺蟲劑抗藥性管理最重要的議題。有鑑於此,本計畫之總目標乃以二化螟與大螟為研究對象,以擬定一套持久有效的抗藥性管理策略,以避免或延緩害蟲抗藥性之發生,並達到降低殺蟲劑使用頻率與環境污染的目的。重要工作項目則涵蓋二化螟與大螟的危害分佈調查、建立各地二化螟與大螟對常用殺蟲劑之感受性基礎資料、持續監測各地二化螟與大螟對常用殺蟲劑之抗藥性發展趨勢與篩選不同作用機制之藥劑供輪流或交替防治之使用。本年度目標是持續監測各地二化螟對常用藥劑之抗藥性發展趨勢、建立田間大螟對防治二化螟常用殺蟲劑之感受性基礎資料與篩選可以防治二化螟與大螟的殺蟲劑。預期效益則包括(1) 完成大螟對芬普尼、培丹、加保扶、陶斯松與撲滅松五種殺蟲劑的感受性基礎資料建置。 (2) 完成監測各地二化螟對芬普尼、培丹、加保扶、陶斯松與撲滅松五種殺蟲劑的抗藥性發展。 (3) 推薦可用於田間防治大螟與二化螟有效殺蟲藥劑。 6. 芒果炭疽病菌對QoI(Strobilurin)類與常用殺菌劑之抗藥性檢測:芒果炭疽病為台灣重要的果樹病害,在外銷及運輸過程中常造成重大的損失,而化學藥劑處理仍為主要防治措施。95年度計畫中自台灣中南部9個芒果栽培區採回的罹病葉片及果實,單孢分離出50株炭疽病菌。經形態學觀察及專一性引子(primer)對檢測後,所有菌株均屬於C. gloeosporioides。另針對不同濃度之克收欣(Kresoxim-methyl)、亞托敏(Azoxystrobin)、百克敏(Pyraclostrobin)對炭疽病菌菌株間做感受性測定。結果顯示,百克敏在有效濃度100 ppm下,可有效抑制炭疽病生長,然而克收欣與亞托敏在500 ppm有效濃度下,僅能分別抑制27.1%與34%菌株生長。顯然自田間分離的芒果炭疽病菌已出現對克收欣及亞托敏之抗/耐性菌株。本計畫將持續以生物檢測法分析芒果炭疽病菌對此類藥劑的抗/感性反應,並發展抗藥性菌株之快速診斷的分子標幟,追蹤田間抗藥性菌的動態,並了解芒果炭疽病推薦藥是否有交叉抗性的情形,研擬減緩化學藥劑選汰壓力產生之相關措施。架構(重要工作項目): a. 收集台灣不同芒果產區的炭疽病菌 b. 芒果炭疽病菌之鑑定 c. 對QoI(Strobilurin)類與常用推薦殺菌劑之抗/感性檢測 d. 設計抗藥性菌株之專一性引子,並建立抗藥性菌株之檢測平台 e. 追蹤田間抗藥性炭疽病菌株的動態。預期效益: (1) 確定台灣芒果炭疽病菌的種類與分佈。 (2) 建立台灣芒果炭疽病菌對QoI(Strobilurin)類與常用推薦殺菌劑的抗/感性資料。 (3) 建立抗藥性菌株之專一性引子,完成田間抗藥性菌株之快速分子診斷技術。 (4) 明瞭抗QoI (Strobilurin)類與常用殺菌劑之芒果炭疽病菌在田間的動態。 7. 柑橘儲藏期病原菌Penicillium抗藥性菌系之調查及其防治藥劑之篩選:柑橘為台灣最重要經濟果樹,栽培期與儲藏期病害的管理為增加柑橘產量與品質之要素。儲藏期病害防治不佳不僅降低柑橘品質並降低其儲藏壽命。抗藥性的產生為造成防治不佳之重
1. Evaluation of molluscicide resistance and development of new chemicals to manage the apple snails (II)According to the available records, there are three apple snail species in Taiwan, i.e. P. canaliculata、Pomacea scalaris and Pila leopordvillensis and they are import pests of rice field. Currently, Metaldehyde and Niclosamide are the official pest control agents. After a long-term use of these pesticides, resistance of apple snails and deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems may occur. Additionally, triphenyltin acetate (TPTA) are still used although it has been banned for agriculture in 1997. Since the illegal use of TPTA is continuing in Taiwan, the existence of imposex in these target organisms is highly suspected. Because the lack of basic information in distribution and density of the three apple snails, the control situation may have become more complicated and less efficient. In order to understand current status of molluscicide resistance and to develop new chemicals to manage apple snails, the present study will be undertaken, i.e. the degree of imposex in apple sanils will be measured, the distribution and density of apple snails will be estimated, the resistance of apple snails to pesticides and impact of pesticides to other aquatic organisms will be determined. Finally, new chemical treatments and attractants will be developed to establish more effective, practical, and environmental friendly pest-control ways.2. Resistance management and control strategy of major insect pest - development and application of combined formulation of microbial agent and agricultural chemicals(II) This topic investigate if synergism occurs among chemicals or betwween chemical and microbial agent against the diamond backmoth (Plutella xylostella) and beet army warm (Nomuraea rileyi) . The test procedure conducted as following :(1)To evaluate the synergistic effect among chemicals against diamond backmoth (2)To assess the interaction among chemicals against beet armyworm(3)To study the cornbined effect of chemical and Bacillus thurigensis against diamondback moth(4)To elucidate the combined effect of chemical and Nomuraea rileyi against beet army worm3. Survey and management of insecticide reisistancs of Thrips palmiBioassay were conducted on Thrips palmi collected from various fields with different history of pesticide application. The development of insecticide resistance of T. palmi was evaluated by LC50 values of four insecticides (methiocarb, deltamethrin, imidacloprid and formetanate). Serial selection pressures were applied to establish the colony of T. palmi resistant strain in the laboratory. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance of T. palmi were further investigated by using various synergists with insecticides.4. American foulbrood (AFB), an important disease of larval European honey bee (Apis mellifera) caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, is a major concern of the beekeeping industry in Taiwan. However, no registered drugs had been used for disease control. In this study, our subjects focus on the suitability of oxytetracycline (OTC) against AFB.a.Susceptibility of Paenibacillus larvae to OTC: collecting 50 or more of isolates from Taiwan, testing their susceptibility and using for spore inoculmns.b.Control effects of OTC: two testing doses of 50 mg and 100 mg per hive.c.OTC residue in bee products: Find OTC residue in honey, royal jelly and bee pollen by using HPLC.We hope to construct a safe control method against AFB.5. Investigation of Insecticide Resistance and Management Strategies on Rice PestIn Taiwan, Chilo suppressalis Walker and Sesamia inferens Walker are the most important rice borers that will cause dead-heat tiller and white head tiller of rice. When these borers occur in abundance, the quality and the quantity of rice will be affected dramatically. Although there are all kinds of pest management strategies, insecticides are still the most efficient and common way to control insect pests. Over and misuse of insecticides had caused serious problem of pest resistance that made the previous used insecticides lost their efficiency and need to increase the concentration of insecticides or change insecticides to control the pests. This will not only increase the cost but also contaminate and damage our environment. Therefore, how to use insecticides in the right time, right concentration and rational have become the most important issue in the insecticide resistance management. On this basis, we plan to use Chilo suppressalis Walker and Sesamia inferens Walker as model insect pests to establish a strategy for insecticide resistance management, in order to reach the goals of avoiding or delaying the occurrence of insect resistance, and reducing insecticides used and environment contamination. The important tasks for this project include survey of distribution of Chilo suppressalis Walker and Sesamia inferens Walker in Taiwan, establishment of Chilo suppressalis Walker and Sesamia inferens Walker to frequent used insecticides, monitoring the resistance occurring trend of Chilo suppressalis Walker and Sesamia inferens Walker to frequent used insecticides, and screening new recommend insecticides to control both Chilo suppressalis Walker and Sesamia inferens Walker. The goals to accomplish for this year include: (1) continue to monitor the resistance occurring trend of Chilo suppressalis Walker to the frequent used insecticides, (2) establish the susceptibility information of Sesamia inferens Walker to the insecticides that used to control Chilo suppressalis Walker, (3) screen new insecticides that are highly efficient to both Chilo suppressalis Walker and Sesamia inferens Walker.6. Detection of QoI (Strobilurin) and recommending fungicides sensitivity on mango anthracnose fungiAim:Mango anthracnose is important furit disease in Taiwan caused critical losses during export trade and conveyance. While fungicides sprading is one of major method to prevent the disease. According to the results of last project, fifty Colletotrichum isolates obtained from nine mango production area in central and southern Taiwan. The Colletotrichum species were identified as C. gloeosporioides based on morphological observation and species-specific primers. Moreover, the isolates showed different sensitive reaction to kresoxim-methyl, azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin in PDA plate with 1ppm, 10ppm, 100ppm and 500ppm, repectively. The results indicated the pyraclostrobin is efficacy to inhibit mycelia growth in 100ppm. However, kresoxim-methyl and azoxystrobin only could inhibit 27.1% and 34% mycelia growth in 500ppm, respectively. We considered that kresoxim-methyl- and azoxystrobin-resistant isolates of C. gloeosporioides has been existed in field in Taiwan. The objective will continuly use bio-assay to exam the sensitivity of Colletotrichum of mango anthracnose to QoIs and recommending fungicides, and develop rapidly molecular diagnosis to identify the fungicides-resistant Colletotrichum isolates. Moreover, the dynamic variation of fungicide-resistant isolates will be monitoring, and the cross-resistant phenomenon between QoIs and other fungicides will be studied also. The result will be useful to establish a strategy to decrease the selecting pressure from fungicides, and reduce the mango losses and storage damage from anthracnose during export trade.Framework:a. Collecting mango anthracnose fungi from different production areab. Identification of anthracnose fungic. Detection of QoI fungicides sensitivityd. Developing the specific primer and establishing the method for detecting QoIs-resistant isolates e. Monitoring the dynamics of fungicides-resistant Colletotrichum isolates in fieldPredicted benefit:a. To confirm the species and distripution of Colletotrichum isolatesb. To establish the informations of mango anthracnose fungi to QoIs and recommending fungicidesc. To complete and get the specific primer for detecting QoIs-resistant isolates, and accomplish rapidly molecular diagnosis technologyd. Can trace the dynamics of fungicides-resistant Colletotrichum isolates in field 7. The investigation of fungicide resistance of postharvest pathogen Penicillium and the screening of pesticides to control Penicillium diseases on citrusCitrus is the most important fruit in Taiwan. To improve the yield and quality of citrus, the managements of pre-harvest and post-harvest diseases on citrus are critical. Poor control on postharvest diseases will not just reduce the quality of fruit also the shelf-life of fruit. Resistance to fungicides is one of the causes of poor control. Fruit rot caused by Penicillium digitatium is the most important postharvest diseases on citrus. Thiabendazole acts with a single-site mode of action and is the only fungicide suggested to control this diseases in Taiwan. Thiabendazol resistance by many phytopathogenic fungi was reported since 1970s such as citrus green mold. To prevent the failure of posthravest disease control on citrus by thiabendazole resistance, it is essential to understand the sensitivity of the major citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatium to thiabendazole in Taiwan. Fungal strains will be collected from local and super markets and packinghouses. After single spore isolation, all strains will be identified preliminary based on culture characters and morphological characters of spores and sporulation structures. Fungicide resistance will be detected by MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and EC50(50% effective concentration). Two of thiabendazole sensitive and resistant stains, will be used to screen for pesticides registered in Taiwan for citrus postharvest disease control to reduce the risk of thiabendazole resistance and increase the control efficacy of citrus postharvest diseases by fungicides
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/54859
其他識別: 96農科-14.2.1-檢-B6
文章連結: http://grbsearch.stpi.narl.org.tw/GRB/result.jsp?id=1502129&plan_no=96%E8%BE%B2%E7%A7%91-14.2.1-%E6%AA%A2-B6&plan_year=96&projkey=PW9611-1971&target=plan&highStr=*&check=0&pnchDesc=%E6%9C%89%E5%AE%B3%E7%94%9F%E7%89%A9%E6%8A%97%E8%97%A5%E6%80%A7%E8%AA%BF%E6%9F%A5%E8%88%87%E7%AE%A1%E5%88%B6%E6%9A%A8%E8%BE%B2%E8%97%A5%E5%90%88%E7%90%86%E5%8C%96%E6%87%89%E7%94%A8%E8%88%87%E7%AE%A1%E7%90%86
顯示於類別:動物科學系

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