Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/54866
標題: 加強生物防治資源調查開發利用研究
Survey, Exploitation and Application of Biocontrol
作者: 黃振文
顏耀平
陳珮臻
郭章信
游邦照
梁文進
施瑞霖
陳昭瑩
賴博永
施劍鎣
張念台
關鍵字: 植物保護類
應用研究
摘要: 本計畫的目的在於: 1. 植物傷口癒合防護劑之研發與應用-篩選有益傷口癒合防護之微生物與拮抗菌,開發評估平台並合成傷口癒合防護劑。 2. 釋放捕食性天敵防治蘇鐵白輪盾介殼蟲及其效果評估-了解生物天敵雙色出尾蟲捕食能力,做為釋放天敵數量之依據。大量飼養蘇鐵白輪盾介殼蟲之生物天敵雙色出尾蟲以建立蘇鐵白輪盾介殼蟲生物天敵族群,適合野外蘇鐵之生物防治模式,減少未來每年為防治蘇鐵白輪盾介殼蟲為害所付出之成本以完成蘇鐵白輪盾介殼蟲之綜合防治模式,使全國各地之蘇鐵白輪盾介殼蟲疫情得以控制,避免台東蘇鐵林滅絕。 3. 芒果單爪葉蟎(Oligonychus mangiferus)為芒果重要的害蟲之ㄧ,同時危害荔枝、葡萄、梨與桃等多種作物。卵形捕植蟎(Amblyseius ovalis)於熱帶果樹分布廣泛,且可以捕食大量單爪葉蟎,值得評估其生物防治利用價值。本研究擬研發與現行蟲害管理系統相容之監測與生物防治技術,供擬定芒果防疫對策之參考。 建立循序與二項分布取樣法可應用於田間觀測,且具省時、省力、準確估計芒果單爪葉蟎族群密度等特性,利於監測芒果單爪葉蟎族群終年發生頻度。 利用捕植蟎施用密度與數量反應與捕植蟎施用時間與葉蟎族群壓制力,可有效擬訂施用生物防治的適當時機與施用密度。捕植蟎擴散與控制能力研究結果,有助捕植蟎之田間利用與施用方法之改進,進而提供今後生物防治芒果單爪葉蟎之技術開發,落實非農藥防治及生物技術之利用,提高農友經濟收益,促進產品外銷及提昇我國農產品競爭力。 4. 豆莢螟幼蟲喜暱食於嫩芽、花器及豆莢,藥液常難觸及,容易增加用藥次數及用量;而豆類蔬菜生長快速,採收期長,用藥不可不慎,為提升豆類蔬菜之品質,減少農藥用藥用量及殘留量,擬綜合運用微生物、生物防治及性費洛蒙等防治技術,共同防治豆莢螟。本年度計畫之工作重點為: (1) 搭建可拆卸式網室,種植長豇豆,釋放豆莢螟及寄生蠅,評估寄生蜂及寄生蠅於網室長豇豆之寄生防治效果,此試驗於春、秋兩季節進行。 (2) 搭建可拆卸式網室,評估性費洛蒙於長豇豆試驗田,對田間豆莢螟之干擾交尾與產卵效果。 (3) 單獨使用豆莢螟核多角體病毒(BA)、或與蘇力菌、苦楝油、寄生蜂混用,於長豇豆及鵲豆試驗田,評估對豆莢螟之綜合防治效果,此試驗亦於春、秋兩季進行試驗。 5. 目前在植物病害的防治上多依賴化學農藥,長期大量的使用不僅加劇環境污染,更直接危害人類健康。如何以非農藥防治方法,降低對化學農藥之使用,提高我國重要農產之競爭力,是當今病害防治工作的重要方向。本計畫將收集並評估可以防治植物寄生性線蟲及抑制芒果、木瓜、蓮霧、草莓之重要病原真菌的植物種類;在殺線蟲劑的測試使用先前初步試驗有效果之天人菊,以不同施用量與型態(生鮮植體碎片、乾燥碎片)處理感染根瘤線蟲的蕹菜,測試其防治效果;並觀察對於蕹菜、番茄、絲瓜等作物的生長是否有影響。且蒐集其它有毒或無毒的觀賞植物,使用水溶性粗萃取液處理南方根瘤線蟲(Meloidogyne incognita),亦處理危害芒果、木瓜、蓮霧、草莓之病原微生物;評估不同植物抽出物與化學藥劑防治病害之效果差異。作為開發防治之生物農藥,減少劇毒性殺線蟲劑之使用,降低線蟲或病原真菌產生抗藥性速率及生態環境之破壞。 6. 臘狀芽孢桿菌C1菌株分離自百合根圈,已知其施用於百合根圈可增加植株對灰黴病之抵抗性,本計畫擬應用所分離之臘狀芽孢桿菌C1菌株進行其在他種作物病害之防治試驗,瞭解其應用潛力;針對玉米葉枯病進行試驗,測試其施用方式,進行田間試驗及瞭解其使農藥減量之效果,以評估C1菌株與殺菌劑共同使用之可行性。 7. 利用拮抗細菌(Bacillus subtilis LB5)之液態培養稀釋液、木黴菌(Trichoderma sp.)固態發酵液、蘇力菌、印楝素、印楝油及無患子油從蓮霧生長期中,每隔10-14天噴施地上部及地下部落葉,配合中果期之套袋,期以獲得蓮霧病蟲害之非農藥防治效果之技術。調查蓮霧生長期之葉部枝條病菌害蟲及土壤枯枝落葉病菌及空中病菌密度,以了解非農藥處理之田間病菌及害蟲變動情形。 8. 由於番石榴粉介殼蟲在台灣危害寄主作物甚廣,超過250種。包括番石榴、柑桔、玉米和葡萄等重要作物。因此番石榴粉介殼蟲的防治相當重要。為了要避免因使用農藥來防治,所產生的不良副作用,改選用無毒性的性費洛蒙來誘捕是一有效且可行的防治方法。最近番石榴粉介殼蟲之性費洛蒙已被分離、鑑定為(E)-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-2,4-hexadienyl acetate。因此本計畫乃要研發一新簡便的合成方法來合成此費洛蒙並提供作田間誘捕和監測之用,以有效防治此蟲。
The purposes of the study are to 1. Development of bioprotective agent for healing plant wounds. 2. Releases and evaluation of the effectiveness of a predtor, Cybocephalus binotatus, in controlling the cycad scale, Aulacaspis yasumatsui - In order to establish a natural enemy population as the biological control on the field, the mass propagation of C. japonicus will be conducted. In addition, the capture ability of C. japonicus to A. yasumatsui will be studied as the reference for mass release. The results will provide a completed pest manage model and reduce the total cost of controlling A. yasumatsui, benefiting the whole nation and avoiding the extinction of Cycad forest in Taitung. 3. 4. The legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (F.) (syn. M. testulalis) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important pest affecting vegetable and grain legumes in Taiwan. As the LPB larvae feed on tender shoots, flowers and pods by concealing inside, it is very difficult to control them adopting a single approach. At present, farmers rely exclusively on the application of chemical insecticides to combat LPB, especially on vegetable legumes. The over reliance on chemical insecticides has posed insecticide residues in the fresh vegetables because they are harvested in short intervals of two or three days. Therefore, an integrated approach, based on bio-pesticides, natural enemies and sex pheromones, is proposed. Major activities and implementation approaches include (i) testing the individual and combined effectiveness of parasitoids Nemorilla maculosa and Apanteles taragamae against LPB larvae in yard-long bean field during spring and autumn season, (ii) testing the mating and oviposition disruption of the LPB sex pheromones in yard-long bean field, (iii) testing the effectiveness of MaviMNPV formulations alone and in combination with Bt, neem and parasitoids, and (iv) testing the IPM strategy with parasitoids, MaviMNPV, neem and Bt in field experiments with yard-long bean and lablab bean. Thus, this proposal aimed to exploit the bio-control based IPM strategy to combat the LPB in vegetable legumes, which would not only reduce the insecticide use but also enhance the efficiency of natural enemies in field conditions. 5. Pesticides are the most relied on control tactic, but they had great draw backs on environmental safety and human health. One of the goals of disease management is to integrate non-chemical control tactics to lower pesticides usage and increase the revenue of farm products. Natural herb would be collected and tested for the nemacidal and fungicidal efficacy. Gaillardia plucella had good nemacidal efficacy in the preliminary tests and its different formulation as well as quantity of application would be further tested in this project on root-knot infected water spinach. The Gaillardia plucella formula would also be tested for its effect on tomato and gourd growth. Natural herbs are collected and their extraction would be twsted against fungal pathogens on mango, papaya, wax apple and strawberry and compared with the efficacy of conventional fungicides. The purpose of the research is to lower the amount of pesticides used in the future and the risk of pathoges to develop pesiticide-resistance. 6.7. Bacillus cereus C1 was isolated from the rhizosphere of lily plants. When the bacterial suspension was applied to the plant rhizosphere, the incidence of Botrytis leaf blight was decreased. The goal of this project is to test the efficacy of B. cereus C1 on the control of other plant diseases. Corn leaf blight is the disease target. The application method, field trials, the reduction efficiency on fungicide usage will be examined to evaluate the efficacy of C1 application and the feasibility of application combination with fungicide. 8. For developing the non-pesticide control techniques for management of plant diseases and pests of waxapple, the antagonistic bacterium(Bacillus subtilis LB5) and fungi (Trichoderma sp.), commercial biopesticide Bt, azadirachtin are sprayed at 10-14 days interval in waxapple orchard during growing stage , and then integrated with fruit bagging after fruitlet stage. The fungal pathogens and insect pests are investigated preharvest and postharvest to evaluate the control efficiency of the non-pesticide method. 9. Due to the passionvine mealybug, Planococcus minor (Maskell), is a serious pest of more than 250 host plants, including major agricultural crops as diverse as guava, citrus, corn, grapes and tree fruits in Taiwan, the effective control of this pest is very important and has attracted considerable attention. To avoid the side effects occurring by using pesticides, the nontoxic sex pheromone of the passionvine mealybug is chosen instead. Recently, the sex pheromone of this insect has been identified as (E)-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-2,4-hexadienyl acetate. The purpose of this project is to develop a new convenient method to synthesize this sex pheromone and provide it for the mass trapping and monitoring of this pest. Accordingly, the effective control of this pest will be successfully achieved in the near future.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/54866
其他識別: 97農科-14.2.1-檢-B4
文章連結: http://grbsearch.stpi.narl.org.tw/GRB/result.jsp?id=1627257&plan_no=97%E8%BE%B2%E7%A7%91-14.2.1-%E6%AA%A2-B4&plan_year=97&projkey=PW9706-1172&target=plan&highStr=*&check=0&pnchDesc=%E5%8A%A0%E5%BC%B7%E7%94%9F%E7%89%A9%E9%98%B2%E6%B2%BB%E8%B3%87%E6%BA%90%E8%AA%BF%E6%9F%A5%E9%96%8B%E7%99%BC%E5%88%A9%E7%94%A8%E7%A0%94%E7%A9%B6
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