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標題: 荔枝開花、結實之調控與採收後保鮮之研究
Manipulation of flowering, fruiting and postharvest handling techniques in litchi
作者: 張哲嘉
關鍵字: 技術發展
fruit quality
inflorescence thinning
fruit set
storage and transportation
inflorescence formation
flower thining
摘要: 1. Effects of inflorescence thinning on yield and fruit quality in '73-S-20' litchi Inflorescence thinning has been reported as a novel technique to remarkably improve fruit production in “Yu Her Pau” litchi (<I>Litchi chinensis</I> Sonn.) in Taiwan. However, the results were inconsistent, the mechanism is unclear and the labor cost is high. To investigate this effect on fruit production in 73-S-20 litchi, an elite branch of No Mai Tsz found by Yen et al (1984), selected inflorescences of 11 to 12 year old field trees grown in Changwa were hand thinned by removing most branches of each inflorescence right before the beginning of the first flowering wave in two consecutive years. Fruit retention, leaf to fruit ratio and emergence of new flush per cluster were calculated during fruit developing period. Fruit yield per cluster and their characteristics were examined at harvest. From the data we will obtain a source/sink relationship during fruit growth in litchi, and thus a potential orchard management strategy to reduce fruit drop and enhance yield can be developed as well. 2. Studies on post-havest handling of litchi in Taiwan Litchi is one of the important economic fruit in Taiwan. The amount of exported fruit in 2009 was 1,339 MT. The litchi exportation was stabilize domestic price and increase the revenues benefit. The browning and decay were main problems during litchi postharvest chain, therefore, the development of exported market was limited. The research focus on the problems during litchi postharvest and develop new postharvest techniques. Depend on the results of program (postharvest pericarp browning control and improvement of fresh-keeping techniques on Litchi fruits) in 2010, the procooling, different chemicals (chitosan and Na2S2O5) and package way were significantly prolong storage life of litchi. Therefore, the research is going to continue to following the research last year and confirm the results by these treatment. It expected to develop new postharvest techniques for litchi industry. 3. Effect of GA<SUB>3</SUB> treatment on growth and development of ‘Yu Her Pau' litchi during flower induction Late vegetative flush and inflorescence thinning during the cultivation of ‘Yu Her Pau' litchi (<EM>Litchi chinensis</EM> Sonn) is highly laborintensive. Applying GA<SUB>3 </SUB>at certain intervals has been proven effective in reducing flowering intensity in mango and avocado trees. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of GA3 application timing and hand inflorescence thinning on ‘Yu Her Pau' litchi fruiting. In this study, ‘Yu Her Pau' litchi trees were separated into seven separate groups. Six groups of trees received 100 mg/L GA<SUB>3</SUB> foliar sprays at different times during inflorescence induction and one control group did not receive any application of GA<SUB>3</SUB>. Afterwards, all trees in the study were hand-thinned to selectively reduce the number of flowers on each inflorescence. The results of this study showed that ‘Yu Her Pau' litchi trees receiving application of GA3 did not require hand inflorescence thinning and produced a greater litchi yield. Additionally, the application of GA<SUB>3</SUB> at specific times were shown to produce a yield much greater than trees cultivated using traditional methods of hand inflorescence thinning.
1. 疏花序對糯米糍(73-S-20)荔枝著果與果實品質之影響 疏花序已被用於改善’玉荷包’荔枝之著果,但其效益不一、機制未明且所費不貲。近年該技術亦被用於中部之’73-S-20’果園,然其成效需科學性之評估。為探討疏花序能否影響該品系之果實生產及釐清其可能原因,本試驗擬連續兩年(民國101年至102年)於彰化縣芬園鄉簡氏之11至12年生果園(行株距5m×5m)選擇供試植株的部份開花枝條為樣品。仿果農之作業方式,在第一波小花綻放前將花序修剪至僅留2-3主枝,調查對著果、葉果比、結實期萌梢率及果實性狀之影響。預期試驗成果可為荔枝結實生理及田間栽培管理之參考,並據以賡續發展保果策略。 2. 荔枝採收後保鮮之研究 荔枝為台灣重要的經濟果樹之一,2009年荔枝外銷總量雖僅1,339公噸,但對於穩定國內市場價格及增加農民收益,貢獻甚大。荔枝採收後之褐變及腐敗為採後處理之主要問題,亦是影響消費者購買之主要因素,此一問題不解決,對於外銷之拓展為一大瓶頸。本研究乃針對荔枝果實保鮮、褐變及果實腐敗之問題及貯運技術進行研究。根據民國99年荔枝採後果皮褐變控制及保鮮技術改進研究計畫結果顯示,荔枝果實採後預冷、使用Chitosan和Na2S2O5等化學藥劑配合酸化處理以及包裝等方式都可以有效延長荔枝果實的貯藏壽命。因此,本計劃延續上述之研究,更近一步確認各處理方式之效果,開發未來荔枝保鮮之新技術。 3. 花序誘導期間處理GA<SUB>3</SUB>對’玉荷包’荔枝生育之影響 ’玉荷包’荔枝(<EM>Litchi chinensis</EM> Sonn.)生產過程中疏晚梢與疏花需耗費大量人力。本試驗欲探討不同時間處理GA<SUB>3</SUB>與人工疏花對’玉荷包’荔枝結果之影響,將’玉荷包’荔枝花序誘導過程,分成六個不同時間,每次對不同組植株葉面噴施100 mg/L GA<SUB>3</SUB>,對照組不以GA<SUB>3</SUB>處理,開花後對所有植株部份之條行人工修剪花序。試驗結果顯示,經處理GA<SUB>3</SUB>後無需人工疏花處理,即可提升’玉荷包’荔枝產量,特定時間處理GA<SUB>3</SUB>更可使結果數大於僅以人工修剪之一般生產方式。
其他識別: 101農科-9.2.2-糧-Z1(8)
Appears in Collections:園藝學系



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