請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5508
標題: 台中地區酸雨特性和影響因子分析之研究
EVALUATION OF THE CHARACTERISTIC OF WET PRECIPITATION AND SOURCES OF POLLUTANTS IN TAICHUNG AREA.
作者: 林明弘
Lin, Min-Hung
關鍵字: 酸雨
主成份因子分析
長程傳輸
出版社: 環境工程學系
摘要: 本研究主要探討台中地區大氣污染物濕沉降之化學組成和濕沉降通量,並利用氣流逆軌跡模式及相關統計分析方法,探討不同氣候型態下酸雨之特性,以及可能影響酸雨污染之主要因子。雨水樣本取自台中沿海地區的沙鹿測站及內陸地區的東勢測站,採樣期程從2003年1月至12月底止,總共收集82個雨水樣本。主要分析雨水的pH值、Cl-、NO3-、SO4=、Na+、NH4+、K+、Mg2+及Ca2+離子濃度。 2003年台中地區年降雨量722mm,約為歷年年降雨量的30~50%,雨水加權pH年平均值為4.69,主要酸性物種為SO4=及NO3-,其加權年平均濃度分別為35.24及24.09μeqL-1,而主要中和鹼性物種為NH4+及Na+,其加權年平均濃度分別為40.88及15.37μeqL-1。由雨水主成份分析結果顯示,可能影響台中地區酸雨污染之主要因子為:二次氣膠(NO3-、nss-SO4=及NH4+)、海鹽飛沫(Cl-、Na+及Mg2+)及農業活動(K+)。 冬季台灣地區盛行東北季風,台中地區受中國大陸SO2長程傳輸之影響,雨水中nss-SO4=濃度明顯增加,同時nss-SO4=/ NO3-比值也上升;夏季太平洋高壓系統強盛,降雨型態短暫但充沛,雨水中NO3-濃度增加,同時nss-SO4=/ NO3-比值下降,顯示雨水中酸性物質大多受當地污染源影響。推估台中沿海地區雨水中nss-SO4=約有19%經由境外傳輸所貢獻,其源區主要為中國大陸東北及東南沿岸一帶。2003年台中地區因降雨量大幅下降,故大氣中污染物濕沉降通量相對比去年減少許多,主要酸性物種nss-SO4=及NO3-濕沉降通量分別為14.01及13.80 Kgha-1yr-1,而主要鹼性中和物種NH4+及Na+濕沉降通量分別為6.49及2.24 Kgha-1yr-1。
This study mainly investigated the chemical compositions and the deposition fluxes of wet precipitation in Taichung area. We also evaluated the characteristics of acid precipitation of different climate using backward trajectory of airflow and statistics analysis. The samples of the rainwater were collected at the Shalu and the Tungshin station which located in the interior areas of Taichung. We gathered totally 82 samples of the rainwater from January to December in 2003, and analyzed pH and ionic concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO4=, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. The annual rainfall of Taichung was around 722 mm. It was only 30%~50% of those obtained in the previous years. The average volume-weighted pH value was 4.7. The major anions contributing to the acidity of rainwater were SO4= and NO3-. Their average volume-weighted concentrations were 35.2 and 24.1 μeqL-1, respectively. Neutralizing cations were primarily NH4+ and Na+. Their average volume-weighted concentrations were 40.9 and 15.4 μeqL-1, respectively. The analytical result of the rainwater showing the main factors of the polluted acid rain in Taichung were inorganic secondary aerosols (NO3-, nss-SO4= and NH4+), seasalt aerosols (Cl-, Na+ and Mg2+) and activities of agriculture (K+). As the northeast monsoon prevailed during winter season, the concentrations of nss-SO4= and ratio of nss-SO4=/NO3- in rainwater were significantly high. It indicated that Taichung area might receive foreign pollutants via a long-range transport from China. When the Pacific high dominated the region, NO3- concentrations in rainwater were significantly elevated and the ratio of nss-SO4=/NO3- was low. It indicated the prominence of acidic substances contributed by local sources. We calculated that around 21% nss-SO4= in rainwater via a long-range transport from northeast and southeast of China. Furthermore, the wet deposition fluxes of nss-SO4=, NO3-, NH4+ and Na+ were 14.0, 13.1, 6.5 and 2.2 Kgha-1yr-1, respectively.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5508
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