Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/55417
標題: A Study of Competition, Location Choices, Social Capital and Firm Performance in the Emerging Market
新興市場之競爭、區位選擇、社會資本與組織績效之研究
作者: 尤隨樺
關鍵字: 應用研究
Competition
管理科學
競爭
區位選擇
產業群聚
社會網絡
社會資本
組織績效
Location choice
Industrial clusters
Social network
Socialcapital
Organizational performance
摘要: 新興市場之競爭、區位選擇、社會資本與組織績效之研究中文摘要全球的國外直接投資約有12%集中於新興市場,其中,尤以中國大陸所佔的比例最高(Filatotchev, Strange, Piesse and Lien, 2007; Wright, Filatotchev, Hoskisson and Peng, 2005),顯示新興市場的重要性日益提升,策略連結理論指出:在新興市場,公司可以透過與其他公司的網絡連結填補制度漏洞、降低交易成本,同時獲取所需要的策略性資源,而且,這些連結有助於公司獲取規模經濟與範疇經濟、增進營運效率、減少市場波動所產生的傷害,繼而創造綜效,增進廠商在新興市場的競爭力(Chen and Chen, 1998; Yiu, Bruton and Lu,2005)。因此,對於在新興市場營運的公司而言,組織間的網絡關係是一項有價值的資產,亦即社會資本(Li, Qian, Lam and Wang, 2000),然而,建立或維持社會網絡並非是沒有成本的,社會關係的建立其實是一個漸進調整的過程(Chen and Chen, 1998),為了能使網絡中的各公司之間具有較佳的配適,廠商需要在互動的過程中,花費心力蒐集資訊、進行學習與調適,以確保組織間的資源交換能達到最佳狀態,這些都會造成成本的發生(Chen, Chenand Ku, 2004)。綜言之,建立社會網絡具有其效益,亦有其成本,因此,公司應投資哪些類型的網絡連結以強化企業在投資當地的優勢?不同類型的社會網絡所帶來的成本效益為何?各類網絡連結與組織績效之間的關聯性為何?等等,都是廠商在決定社會資本投資時首需釐清的重要問題。另一方面,聚集經濟被認為與廠商在新興市場的區位選擇具有正向關係(Pusterla and Resmini, 2007),但隨著廠商在特定區位的聚集,也會增加廠商間對資源、市場與知識的競爭,廠商究係如何在競爭成本與聚集效益之間取捨,以決定區位的聚集或分散實有深入探討之必要。區域化知識經濟文獻顯示:不同的區位選擇會影響廠商既有資源與能力的價值,也會決定新興市場廠商所需要的資源與能力(Sun and Tse, 2009),此外,廠商的區位選擇也會影響其所處的社會網絡,同時決定其所面臨的產業競爭程度,反之,廠商所具有的社會關係也會影響其對投資區位的選擇,並減低競爭所帶來的負面影響,是故,廠商應如何在競爭、區位選擇、社會網絡與社會資本之間獲得最佳的配適,以增進其在新興市場的競爭力,是值得深究的問題。因此,本研究計畫擬分二年深入探討新興市場廠商所面臨的競爭、區位選擇、社會資本與社會網絡之內涵,並分析前述各因素對管理決策與績效之影響。關於本研究計畫各年度之主題及方向,茲分別說明如下:1. 第一年之研究主題及方向:競爭、區位選擇與組織績效之關聯性(1) 在新興市場,廠商選擇投資區位及促成產業群聚的主要影響因素為何?競爭成本與聚集效益之間如何取捨?(2) 在不同國家文化、產業環境與地理區域下,產業群聚對組織績效的影響有何不同?(3) 產業集群之特性(例如:集群成員的同質或異質、成員間的合作關係、成員的技術能力)如何影響產業群聚之成本與效益?(4) 競爭策略、區位選擇與組織績效之關聯性為何?2. 第二年之研究主題及方向:社會網絡與社會資本之影響因素及其對組織績效之影響(1) 在不同理論觀點下,新興市場中組織社會資本之來源、衡量與可產生之效益各為何?(2) 產業特性、公司策略與區位選擇如何影響社會網絡之建立及社會資本之投資?(3) 來自於母國、地主國、產業及集團的社會網絡與社會資本對於組織績效之影響有何不同?(4) 產品市場競爭與知識外溢如何影響社會資本與組織績效之間的關係?
A Study of Competition, Location Choices, Social Capital and FirmPerformance in the Emerging MarketAbstractEmerging economies accounted for about 12% of the world's outward foreign directinvestment. China, in particular, plays an increasing role in shaping the phenomenon(Filatotchev, Strange, Piesse and Lien, 2007; Wright, Filatotchev, Hoskisson and Peng, 2005).But theoretical explanations of how firms succeed or fail in emerging economies remainlimited (Mathews, 2002, 2006). Strategic linkage theory indicates that firms can tap intodesired strategic resources in a foreign market by linking to other firms. The linkages enablefirms to fill the institutional voids and reduce transaction costs, to gain economies of scopeand scale, to improve the efficiency of operations, to reduce the vulnerability to marketfluctuations and thus create a synergy effect that enhances the competitiveness of firms (Chenand Chen, 1998). These network linkages are valuable for firms, which are so called ‘socialcapital'(Li, Qian, Lam and Wang, 2000). However, building or maintaining social networks isnot costless. Networking is actually an adaptation process (Chen and Chen, 1998). To bringabout a better match between the firms in the network, firms will need to spend much effort ininformation gathering, organizational learning and adaptation until a new position forresource exchange is secured. Linkage costs thus are incurred (Chen, Chen and Ku, 2004).Taken together, building social relationships has costs and benefits. Understand what socialrelations can provide benefits and overcome liability of foreignness is important for foreignfirms in an emerging market. More specifically, firms need to understand the followingquestions. What kinds of network linkages that can strengthen a firm's local advantages andthus need to be built? What are the costs and effectiveness of different social networks? Howdo different network linkages relate to organizational performance?Industrial clusters are another popular phenomenon in the emerging market.Agglomeration economies are closely related to this location choice (Pusterla and Resmini,2007). Agglomeration economies refer to economies external to the firm, but internal to agroup of interrelated firms localized in a geographical area, which arise from clusters ofinter-firm linkages. Firms in the cluster benefit from agglomeration economies such as nearbysuppliers attaining efficient scale, development of general labor markets, and specializedskills, and network-based effects underlying the cluster, especially enhanced social interaction.However, several studies also indicate that competition among firms increases with thenumber of firms clustering in the same region. Therefore, it is important to analyze how firmsreact differently to agglomeration and competition force if we would like to understandfirms' location choices in more depth. In addition, the localized knowledge literature ineconomics indicates that resources that are valuable in certain locations might not be equallyvaluable in others due to the existence and diffusion of localized knowledge (Sun and Tse,2009). In other words, the value of firms' resources and capability are contingent on thesocial network embedded in certain region. In short, location choices are closely related tosocial networks and social capital. Understanding the relation between them is important forfirms to build local advantages in the emerging market.Given above, this study plans to use two years to explore in more depth competition,location choice, social network and social capital of enterprises in emerging market andfurther examine their impact on management decisions and performance. The related researchtopics and directions for each year are summarized as follows:1. The first year will focus on examining the association between competition, locationchoices and organizational performance in the emerging market. Research topics areas follows:(1) This study will examine the determinants of industrial clusters and firms'locationchoices in the emerging market while considering the tradeoff between competitioncosts and agglomeration economies.(2) This study will examine how the impact of industrial clusters on firm performancediffers in different national cultures, industries and geographic locations.(3) This study will examine how the characteristics of industrial clusters affect the costsand the benefits of firms'being located proximity to their counterparts in the emergingmarket.(4) This study will examine the associations between competitive strategy, location choicesand organizational performance in the emerging market.2. The second year will focus on examining the determinants and performanceconsequences of social network and social capital in the emerging market. Researchtopics are as follows.(1) This study will examine the sources, the measurements and the benefits of socialcapital in the emerging market using various perspectives.(2) This study will examine how industry characteristics, corporate strategy and locationchoices affect social networks and social capital of firms in the emerging market.(3) This study will examine the performance impacts of social capital and social networksembedded in the home country, the host country, the industrial cluster and the businessgroup respectively and further analyze the relative importance of these social networksin improving firms'performance in the emerging market.(4) This study will examine how the relationship between social capital and firmperformance is moderated by the industry market competition and knowledgespillovers in the emerging market.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/55417
其他識別: NSC99-2410-H005-020
文章連結: http://grbsearch.stpi.narl.org.tw/GRB/result.jsp?id=2138762&plan_no=NSC99-2410-H005-020&plan_year=99&projkey=PF9907-6415&target=plan&highStr=*&check=0&pnchDesc=%E6%96%B0%E8%88%88%E5%B8%82%E5%A0%B4%E4%B9%8B%E7%AB%B6%E7%88%AD%E3%80%81%E5%8D%80%E4%BD%8D%E9%81%B8%E6%93%87%E3%80%81%E7%A4%BE%E6%9C%83%E8%B3%87%E6%9C%AC%E8%88%87%E7%B5%84%E7%B9%94%E7%B8%BE%E6%95%88%E4%B9%8B%E7%A0%94%E7%A9%B6
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