Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5571
標題: 下水污泥再利用之最適化探討
The Optimization of the Recycling and Reuse of Sewage Sludge
作者: 林皇君
Lin, Huang-Chun
關鍵字: sewage sludge
下水污泥
recycling
reuse
optimization
再利用
最適化
出版社: 環境工程學系所
引用: 中文部分 1. 工業污染防治技術服務團 (1997) 有機事業廢棄物堆肥處理技術。 2. 內政部營建署 (2002) 下水污泥綠地、農地利用手冊之研訂。 3. 內政部營建署 (2004) 公共下水道污水處理廠污泥再利用於土壤改良材之研究。 4. 內政部營建署 (2008) 污水下水道統計要覽。 5. 內政部營建署 (2009) 污水下水道發展方案(核定本)。 6. 內政部營建署 (2009) 全國污水下水道推動策略研討會成果報告。 7. 田中和博、佐藤和明 (1997) 日本下水污泥處理處置及利用近況,第七屆下水道技術研討會論文集,pp. 17–31。 8. 朱敬平、李篤中 (2002) 污泥處置(IV):策略與永續利用,台灣大學台大工程學刊,No. 84,pp. 91–101。 9. 國立編譯館 (2001) 都市廢水污泥處理。 10. 張鎮南 (1993) 工業污染防治技術手冊28 –污泥好氧消化。 11. 曾迪華 (1996) 工業污染防治技術手冊27 –污泥濃縮處理。 12. 曾迪華 (2002) 工業污染防治技術手冊14 –污泥脫水處理。 13. 黃聖賢 (2007) 下水道污泥資源化再利用及處理處置技術探討,2007 年台灣下水道工程實務研討會論文集,pp. 47–57。 14. 經濟部工業局、財團法人台灣綠色生產力基金會 (2005) 堆肥技術與設備手冊及案例彙編。 15. 經濟部工業局工業污染防治技術服務團、財團法人中國技術服務社 (1987) 工業污染防治技術手冊11–污泥厭氧消化。 16. 內政部營建署污水下水道資訊網 (2009/11) http://sewer.cpami.gov.tw 17. 內政部營建署網站 (2009/11) http://www.cpami.gov.tw 18. 行政院農業委員會網站 (2009/11) http://www.coa.gov.tw 19. 行政院環保署網站 (2009/11) http://www.epa.gov.tw 英文部分 1. European Commission (2001) Disposal and Recycling Routes for Sewage Sludge. 2. Fras, K. (2006) Directive 86/278/EEC on Sewage Sludge. 3. Fytili, D. and A. Zabaniotou (2008) Utilization of Sewage Sludge in EU Application of Old and New Methods–A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 12, pp. 116–140. 4. Girovich, M. J. (1996) Biosolids Treatment and Management : Processes for Beneficial Use. 5. Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan (2007) Technologies to Support a Sound Material–Cycle Society–Development of 3R and Waste Management Technologies–. 6. Singh, R. P. and M. Agrawal (2008) Potential Benefits and Risks of Land Application of Sewage Sludge. Waste Management, Vol. 28, pp. 347–358. 7. U.S.EPA (1983) Process Design Manual–Land Application of Municipal Sludge. EPA-625/1-83-016. 8. U.S.EPA (1994) Land Application of Sewage Sludge–A Guide for Land Appliers on the Requirements of the Federal Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge, 40 CFR Part 503. EPA/831-B-93-002b. 9. U.S.EPA (1995) A Guide to the Biosolids Risk Assessments for the EPA Part 503 Rule. EPA/832-B-93-005. 10. U.S.EPA (1997) Innovative Uses of Compost–Erosion Control, Turf Remediation, and Landscaping. EPA530-F-97-043. 11. U.S.EPA (1999a) Biosolids Generation, Use, and Disposal in The United States. EPA530-R-99-009. 12. U.S.EPA (1999b) Biosolids Management Handbook. 13. U.S.EPA (2003) Control of Pathogens and Vector Attraction in Sewage Sludge. EPA/625/R-92/013. 14. Wang, L. K., N. K. Shammas , and Y. T. Hung (2007) Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Volume 6 : Biosolids Treatment Processes. 15. Werther, J. and T. Ogada (1999) Sewage Sludge Combustion. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 25, pp. 55-116. 16. Europa (2009/11) http://europa.eu 17. U.S.EPA (2009/11) http://www.epa.gov 日文部分 1. 社団法人日本下水道協會 (2008) 下水汚泥エネルギー利用調査報告書. 2. 社団法人日本ガス協会網站 (2009/11) http://www.gas.or.jp 3. 社団法人日本下水道協會網站 (2009/11) http://www.jswa.jp
摘要: 本研究彙整國內、外下水污泥再利用文獻資料,探討污泥處理及再利用方案之優勢與限制,並進行定量及定性評估,用以建議國內污泥處理及再利用之最適化方案。整體而言,污泥處理採厭氧消化及堆肥程序為佳,兼具降低致病性微生物與病媒吸引物削減功能,對環境影響不高,整體效益良好。而再利用方案評估結果,國內污泥以綠農地利用及熱利用(高溫高濃度厭氧消化、造粒乾燥)方案為佳。綠農地利用方案建議國內下水污泥先試行於特定綠地(非農地)或掩埋場,做為肥料、土壤改良材或覆土材料,並限制其操作條件以確保產品使用無虞;熱利用方案則建議參酌國內污水處理廠污泥處理方式選定,如既有污水處理廠已採厭氧消化處理污泥者,增設相關設備以符合高溫高濃度厭氧消化條件,使消化氣體產率提升,以為輔助燃料或發電用途,而具有污泥乾燥設備之污水處理廠,可採造粒乾燥方案節省能源支出,產品可做為固體燃料或顆粒肥料之用。 國外將下水污泥視為再利用資源廣泛應用已有長久歷史,美國環保署於1993年公告40 CFR Part 503 管理規範(含污泥土地應用、地表處置場的最終處置及焚化等規定),歐盟於1986 年發佈污泥農業利用86/278/EEC 執行指令,為現階段關於污泥處置或再利用較為完整之規範。而國內環保法規對於廢棄物(含污泥)焚化或掩埋已有詳盡管制規範,包含處理方法、設施標準、管理辦法及排放標準等,故本研究僅針對美國及歐盟有關綠農地利用部分進行探討,並提出國內污泥做為綠地利用最適化規範之建議,擬訂規範項目包括:(1)再利用產品污染物管制;(2)再利用產品致病性微生物要求;(3)土地施用限制(施加量及施加地點);(4)再利用產品、施加地點之檢測項目及頻率;(5)再利用相關紀錄申報規定。唯有妥善規劃污泥再利用方案並擬訂國內適用規範,儘速推動污泥資源化多元方案,以充分運用污泥 內含價值,方能解決掩埋場容量不足之困境。
The study collects the published papers and EPA manuals about sewage sludge recycling and reuse, and discusses the advantages and limitations of different sewage sludge treatment, recycling, and reuse technologies. Thereafter, the quantitative and qualitative analyses are assessed in order to make suggestions on the optimum operating conditions about the sewage sludge treatment, recycling, and reuse technologies. According to the results, anaerobic digestion and composting are better options in comparison with other sewage sludge treatment methods. The two processes both could reduce pathogen and vector attraction and have lower impacts on the environment. In addition, land application and energy recovery (high SS concentrations thermophilic anaerobic digestion, heat drying, and pelletizing) are better options than others for sewage sludge recycling and reuse. The treated sewage sludge could be applied to the non-agricultural land or disposal site, and be used as fertilizer, soil conditioner, or the landfill site cover material. To ensure the products is safe for reuse, we could restrict within the operating conditions for sewage sludge application. The optimization of energy recovery of sewage sludge depends the treatment methods employed by publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). If the anaerobic digester is selected as the treatment method, we could have more related equipment to conform that the operating conditions meet the requirement of high SS concentrations thermophilic anaerobic digestion. This method could increase the digestion rate and the amount of gas production. Besides, sewage sludge produced by POTWs with dryers (e.g., drying beds) could be further treated by heat drying and pelletizing process to become fuel or fertilizer, and this way could save energy costs. Sewage sludge is widely used as a resource with a long history. The U.S. EPA in 1993 announced the regulation “40 CFR Part 503-Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge”, including land application, surface disposal and incineration. The European Union (EU) in 1986 announced the Council Directive 86/278/EEC to regulate the reuse of sewage sludge in agriculture area. Both of them are relatively complete regulations of sewage sludge disposal, recycling and reuse. However, environmental regulations of wastes (including sludge) disposal or incineration in Taiwan is coverd by “Waste Disposal Act” and “Air Pollution Control Act”, including of wastes treatment methods, facilities standards, management practices and air pollutant emission standards. Therefore, this study only investigates land application of sewage sludge in U.S. and EU, and then proposes the optimization of sewage sludge used in non-agricultural land. The proposed suggestion includes: (1) pollutant management of products; (2) pathogens reduction requirements of products; (3) land application restriction (application rate and site); (4) analysis items and monitoring frequency of the products and application site; (5) reporting and recordkeeping. It is necessary to plan proper use of sewage sludge and legislate for it as soon as possible, so that we could make better reuse of sewage sludge and solve the dilemma of landfill capacity shortage.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5571
其他識別: U0005-0202201012262700
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-0202201012262700
Appears in Collections:環境工程學系所

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.