請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件：
Revision of an aerosol model and retrospective assessment of air quality management practices in Taiwan from 1996 to 2002
air quality model
Gaussian plume model
|引用:||(1) Almeida S.M., C.A. Pio, M.C. Freitas, M.A. Reis, M.A. Trancoso, 2005: “Source apportionment of fine and coarse particulate matter in a sub-urban area at the western European coast.” Atmospheric Environment, 39 (17), 3127-3138. (2) Anastassopoulos A., S. Nguyen, X. Xu, 2004: “On the use of the HYSPLIT model to study air quality in Windsor, Ontario, Canada.ˮ Environmental Informatics Archives, 2, 517-525. (3) Ballester F., 2005: “Air pollution and health” Book: Environmental Health Impacts of Transport and Mobility (edited by Moshammer H., L. Schmidt, L. Hens, P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati, P. Lammar), 53-77, Springer Netherlands. (4) Barratt B., R. Atkinson, H.R. Anderson, S. Beevers, F. Kelly, I. Mudway, P. Wilkinson, 2007: “Investigation into the use of the CUSUM technique in identifying changes to mean air pollution levels following introduction of a traffic management scheme.” Atmospheric Environment, 41 (8), 1784–1791. (5) Baumann K., and A. Stohl, 1997: “Validation of a long-range trajectory model using gas balloon tracks from the Gordon Bennett Cup 95.” Journal of Applied Meteorology, 36, 711-720. (6) Bernstein J.A., N. Alexis, C. Barbes, I.L. Bernstein, J.A. Bernstein, A. Nel, D. Peden, D. Diaz-Sanchez, S.M. Tarlo, P.B. Williams, 2004: “Health effects of air pollution.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 114 (5), 1116-1123. (7) Calvert J.G., W.R. Stockwell, 1983: “Acid generation in the troposphere by gas-phase chemistry.” Environmental Science and Technology, 17, 428-443. (8) Carreras-Sospedra M., D. Dabdub, M. Rodríguez, J. Brouwer, 2006: “Air quality modeling in the south coast air basin of California: What do the numbers really mean?” Journal of Air & Waste Management Association, 56, 1184-1195. (9) Chameides W.L., and A.W. Stelson, 1992: “Aqueous-phase chemical processes in deliquescent sea-salt aerosols: a mechanism that couples the atmospheric cycles of S and sea-salt.” Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 20565-20580. (10) Chandrasekar, A., C.R. Philbrick, R. Clark, B. Doddridge, P. Georgopoulos, 2003: “Evaluating the performance of a computationally efficient MM5/CALMET system for developing wind field inputs to air quality models.” Atmospheric Environment, 37, 3267-3276. (11) Chang L.P., 2009: “Variation of the relationship among ultrafine inorganic aerosols, gaseous precusors and meterological parameters.” Doctoral Thesis, Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University. (in Chinese) (12) Charron A., R.M. Harrison, P. Quincey, 2007: “What are the sources and conditions responsible for exceedences of the 24h PM10 limit value (50 µgm−3) at a heavily trafficked London site?” Atmospheric Environment, 41 (9), 1960– 1975. (13) Chen C.L., B.J. Tsuang, C.Y. Tu, W.L. Cheng, M.D. Lin, 2002: “Wintertime vertical profiles of air pollutants over a suburban area in central Taiwan.” Atmospheric Environment, 36 (12), 2049-2059. (14) Chen C.S., and C.Y. Lin, 1997: “A numerical study of airflow over Taiwan Island.” Atmospheric Environment, 31 (3), 463-473. (15) Cheng M.T., Chou W.C., Chio C.P., Hsu S.C., Su Y.R., Kuo P.H., Tsuang B.J., Lin S.H., Chou C. C.K., 2008: “Compositions and source apportionments of atmospheric aerosol during Asian dust storm and local pollution in central Taiwan.” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 61 (2), 155-173. (16) Cheng M.T., and Y.I. Tsai, 2000: “Characterization of visibility and atmospheric aerosols in urban, suburban, and remote areas.” The Science of the Total Environment 263, 101-114. (17) Cheng W.-L., 2001a: “Spatio-temporal variations of sulphur dioxide patterns with wind conditions in central Taiwan.” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 66 (1), 77–98. (18) Cheng. W.-L., 2001b: “Synoptic weather patterns and their relationship to high ozone concentration in the Taichung basin.” Atmospheric Environment, 35 (29), 4971–4994. (19) Cheng W.-L., Tsuang B.-J., Pai J.-L., Chen C.-L., 2001: “Synoptic patterns in relation to ozone concentrations in west-central Taiwan.” Meteorological Atmospheric Physics, 78 (1-2), 11-21. (20) Cheng M.T., W.L. Cheng, K.H. Chang, P.L. Lin, B.J. Tsuang, C.F. Wang, T.I. Kuo, C.S. Lin, C.J. Wang, G.S. Huang, H. Pai, 2000: “Technique databank for central Taiwan air quality management plan (CTAMP).” (不完整) (21) Chio C.P., M.T. Cheng, C.F. Wang, 2004: “Source apportionment to PM10 in different air quality conditions for Taichung urban and coastal areas, Taiwan.” Atmospheric Environment, 38 (39), 6893–6905. (22) Chock D.P., P. Sun, S.L. Winkler, 1996: “Trajectory-grid: an accurate sign-preserving advection-diffusion approach for air quality modeling.” Atmospheric Environment, 30 (6), 857-868. (23) Chock D.P., M.J. Whalen, S.L. Winkler, P. Sun, 2005: “Implementing the trajectory-grid transport algorithm in an air quality model.” Atmospheric Environment, 39 (22), 4015-4023. (24) Clancy L., P. Goodman, H. Sinclair, D.W. Dockery, 2002: “Effect of air-pollution control on death rates in Dublin, Ireland: an intervention study.” The Lancet, 369 (9341), 1210-1214. (25) Costa D.L., K.L. Dreher, 1997: “Bioavailable transition metals in particulate matter mediate cardiopulmonary injury in healthy and compromised animal models.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 105, Supplement 5, 1053-1060. (26) CTCI, 1999: “Carrying capacity management plan for air pollutants and estimation of emission inventory over Taiwan.” Report, Environmental Protection Administration- Taiwan, EPA-88-FA31-03-03-1059. (in Chinese) (27) CTCI, 2003: “Update and management for air pollution emission inventory and estimation for air pollution degradation of GNP.” Report, Environmental Protection Administration- Taiwan, EPA-92-FA11-03-D039. (in Chinese) (28) Draxler R.R., 1996: “Trajectory optimization for balloon flight planning.” Notes and Correspondence, Weather and Forecasting, 11, 111-114. (29) Dockery D.W., C.A. Pope, X. Xiping, J.D. Spengler, J.H. Ware, M.E. Fay, B.G. Ferris, F.E. Speizer, 1993: “An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities.” New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 1753-1759. (30) Eder B., S. Yu, 2006: “A performance evaluation of the 2004 release of Models-3 CMAQ.” Atmospheric Environment, 40 (26), 4811-4824. (31) EEA, 2009: “European community emission inventory repost 1990-2007 under the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (LRTAP).” Technical Report, European Environment Agency. (32) Enger, L., and D. Koracin, 1995: “Simulations of dispersion in complex terrain using a higher-order closure model.” Atmospheric Environment, 29 (18), 2449-2465. (33) EPA/TW, 2000: “Air quality management in Taiwan in the past 25 years (1975– 2000).” Environmental Protection Agency, Taiwan, 385 pp. (in Chinese). (34) EPA/US, 1999: “Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Stationary Point and Area Sources.” 5th Edition, Vol. I. Report No. AP-42, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. (35) EPA/US, 2002: “Pollution prevention act of 1990.” US Environmental Protection Agency. (36) EPA/US, 2006: “SPECIATE 4.0—Speciation Database Development Documentation, Final Report.” EPA/600/R-06/161. US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. (37) EPA/US, 2008: “Promoting pollution prevention to achieve sustainability: A strategic plan for the U.S. environmental protection agency’s pollution prevention program, 2009-2014.” Draft, US Environmental Protection Agency. (38) Fang S.H., and H.W. Chen, 1996: “Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan.” Atmospheric Environment 30 (5), 735–741. (39) Forster C., A. Stohl, P. Seibert, 2007: “Parameterization of convective transport in a Lagrangian particle dispersion model and its evaluation.” Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 46, 403-422. (40) Goldberg D.E., 1989: “Genetic algorithms in search, optimization and machine learning.” Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc. (41) Hanna S.R., G.A. Briggs, R.P. Hosker, 1982: “Handbook on atmospheric diffusion.” Technical Information Center, U.S. Department of Energy. (42) Harley R.A., S.E. Hunts, G.R. Cass, 1989: “Strategies for control of particulate air quality: Least-cost solutions based on receptor-oriented models.” Environmental Science and Technology, 23, 1007–1014. (43) Harrison R.M., J. Stedman, D. Derwent, 2008: “New directions: Why are PM10 concentrations in Europe not falling?” Atmospheric Environment, 42 (3), 603-608. (44) He K., F. Yang, Y. Ma, Q. Zhang, X. Yao, C. K. Chen, S. Candle, T. Chan, P. Mulawa, 2001: “The characteristics of PM2.5 in Beijing, China.” Atmospheric Environment, 35 (), 4959-4970. (45) Hernández J.F., L. Cremades, J.M. Baldasano, 1997: “Simulation of tracer dispersion from elevated and surface releases in complex terrain.” Atmospheric Environment, 31 (15), 2337-2348. (46) Hidy G.M., 1994: “Atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen oxides.” Academic Press, California. (47) Hien P.D., V.T. Bac, N.T.H. Thinh, 2004: “PMF receptor modeling of fine and coarse PM10 in air masses governing monsoon conditions in Hanoi, northern Vietnam.” Atmospheric Environment, 38 (2), 189-201. (48) Ho K.F., S.C. Lee, C.K. Chan, J.C. Yu, J.C. Chow, X.H. Yao, 2003: “Characterization of chemical species in PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols in Hong Kong.” Atmospheric Environment, 37 (1), 31-39. (49) Holland J.H., 1962: “Outline for a logical theory of adaptive systems.” Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, 3, 297-314. (50) Holland J.H., 1975: “Adaptation in natural and artificial systems.” Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. (51) Holzworth G.C., 1964: “Estimates of mean maximum mixing depths in the contiguous United States.” Monthly Weather Review 92, 235-242. (52) Holzworth G.C., 1967: “Mixing depths, wind speeds and air pollution potential for selected locations in the United States.” Journal of Applied Meteorology 6, 1039-1044. (53) Holzworth G.C., 1972: “Mixing heights, wind speeds and potential for urban air pollution through the contiguous unite state.” AP-101, U.S. EPA, Raleigh, NC. (54) Horng, C.L., 2008: “Characteristics of PM2.5, acidic and basic gases and conversion rate of sulfur dioxide to sulfate in central Taiwan.” Doctoral Thesis, Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung-Hsing University. (in Chinese) (55) Hsu C.L., 2007: “Trajectory parameter identification for optimizing air quality simulateion.” Master Thesis, Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung-Hsing University. (in Chinese) (56) Kassomenos P., V. Kotroni, G. Kallos, 1995: “Analysis of climatological and air quality observations from Greater Athens Area.” Atmospheric Environment, 29 (24), 3671-3688. (57) Kim D., and W.R. Stockwell, 2007: “An online coupled meteorological and air quality modeling study of the effect of complex terrain on the regional transport and transformation of air pollutants over the Western United States.” Atmospheric Environment, 41 (11), 2319-2334. (58) Kukkonen J., J. Härkönen, J. Walden, A. Karppinen, K. Lusa, 2001: “Evaluation of the dispersion model CAR-FMI against data from a measurement campaign near a major road.” Atmospheric Environment, 35 (5), 949–960. (59) Künzli N., R. Kaiser, S. Medina, M. Studnicka, O. Chanel, P. Filliger, M. Herry, F. Horak, V. Buybonnieux-Texier, P. Quénel, J. Schneider, R. Seethaler, J.C. Vergnaud, H. Sommer, 2000: “Public-health impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: a European assessment.” The Lancet, 356 (9232), 795-801. (60) Laden F., J. Schwartz, F.E. Speizer, D.W. Dockery, 2006: “Reduction in fine particulate air pollution and mortality: Extended follow-up of the Harvard six cities study.” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 173 (6), 667-672. (61) Lee S., W. Liu, Y. Wang, A.G. Russell, E.S. Edgerton, 2008: “Source apportionment of PM2.5: Comparing PMF and CMB results for four ambient monitoring sites in the southeastern United States.” Atmospheric Environment, 42 (18), 4126-4137. (62) Levy J.I., J.D. Spengler, D. Hlinka, D. Sullivan, D. Moon, 2002: “Using CALPUFF to evaluate the impacts of power plant emissions in Illinois: model sensitivity and implications.” Atmospheric Environment, 36 (6), 1063-1075. (63) Liaw Y.P., C.J. Chen, W.C. Lee, S.Y. Hsu, 2003: “The construction and use of the electric atlas of cancer mortality and incidence in Taiwan.” Taiwan J. Public Health (Taipei) 2003, 22(3), 227-236. (64) Lin J.J., 2002: “Characterization of water-soluble ion species in urban ambient particles.” Environmental International, 28, 55-61. (65) Lin Y.C., 2006: “Characteristics and affecting factors of atmospheric acidic gases and particulates.” Doctoral Thesis, Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung-Hsing University. (in Chinese) (66) Lin Y.C., M.T. Cheng, 2007: “Evaluation of formation rates of NO2 to gaseous and particulate nitrate in the urban atmosphere.” Atmospheric Environment, 41(9), 1903-1910. (67) Lin Y.C., Y.Y. Lan, B. J. Tsuang, Engling G., 2008: “Long-term spatial distributions and trends of ambient CO concentrations in the central Taiwan basin.” Atmospheric Environment, 42, 4320-4331. (68) Linn W.S., H. Gong, D.A. Jr. Shamoo, K.R. Anderson, E.L. Avol, 1997: “Chamber exposures of children to mixed ozone, sulfur dioxide, and sulfuric acid.” Archives Environmental Health, 52, 179-187. (69) Margitan J.J., 1984: “Mechanism of the atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide. Catalysis by hydroxyl radicals.” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 88 (15), 3314–3318. (70) McKinney D.C., and M.D. Lin, 1994: “Genetic algorithm solution of groundwater management models.” Water Resources Research, 30 (6), 1897–1906. (71) McKinney D.C., and M.D. Lin, 1995: “Approximate Mixed-integer Nonlinear Programming Methods for Optimal Aquifer Remediation Design.” Water Resources Research, 31 (3), 731-740. (72) McMurry P.H., and J.C. Wilson, 1983: “Droplet phase (heterogeneous) and gas phase (homogeneous) contributions to secondary ambient aerosols formation as functions of relative humidiity.” Journal of Geophysical Research, 88, 5101-5108. (73) Medley A.J., C.-M. Wong, T.Q. Thach, S. Ma, T.-H. Lam, H.R. Anderson, 2002: “Cardiorespiratory and all-cause mortality after restrictions on sulphur content of fuel in Hong Kong: an intervention study.” The Lancet, 369 (9346), 1646-1652. (74) MOEA/TW, 2007: “Taiwan energy statistical hand book.” Report, Bureau of Energy, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan, pp. 30-39. (in Chinese) (75) Monahan E.C., D.E. Spiel, K.L. Davidson, 1986: “A model of marine aerosol generation via whitecaps and wave disruption.” in Oceanic Whitecaps, edited by E.C. Monahan and G. Mac Niocaill, D. Riedel, Norwell, Mass, pp. 167–174. (76) Montenegro R., G. Montero, E. Rodríguez, J.M. Escobar, J.M. González-Yuste, 2008: “Applications of Genentic Algorithm in realistic wind field simulations.” Studies in Computational Intelligence 102, 165-182. (77) Neuberger M., M.G. Schimek, H.J. Friedrich, H. Moshammer, M. Kundi, T. Frischer, B. Gomiscek, H. Puxbaum, H. Hauck, AUPHEP-Team, 2004: “Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory disease, symptoms and functions: Epidemiological results of the Austrian project on health effects of particulate matter (AUPHEP).” Atmospheric Environment, 38 (24), 3971-3981. (78) O’Brien J.J., 1970: “A note on the vertical structure of the eddy exchange coefficient in the planetary boundary layer.” Journal of the Atomospheric Sciences, 27, 1213-1215. (79) Oettl, D., , R.A. Almbauer, P.J. Sturm, M. Piringer, K. Baumann, 2001: “Analysing the nocturnal wind field in the city of Graz.” Atmospheric Environment, 35 (2), 379-387. (80) Olson L.W., and K. Boison, 2005: “Health impact and control of particle matter.” Book: Environmental Health Impacts of Transport and Mobility (edited by Moshammer H., L. Schmidt, L. Hens, P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati, P. Lammar), 115-125, Springer Netherlands. (81) Oxley T., H.M. ApSimon, A. Dore, M. Sutton, J. Hall, E. Heywood, T. G. del Campo, R.F. Warren, 2004: “The UK Integrated Assessment Model, UKIAM: A national scale approach to the analysis of strategies for abatement of atmospheric pollutants under the convention on long-range transboundary air pollution.” Integrated Assessment, 4, 236–249. (82) Padro J., G. den Hartog, H.H. Neumann, 1991: “An investigation of the ADOM dry deposition module using summertime O3 measurements above a deciduous forest.” Atmospheric Environment, 25A, 1689–1704. (83) Padro J., and G.C. Edwards, 1991: “Sensitivity of ADOM dry deposition velocities to input parameters: a comparison with measurements for SO2 and NO2 over three land-use types.” Atmosphere-Ocean, 29, 667–685. (84) Pielke, R. A., M. Uliasz, 1998: “Use of meteorological models as input to regional and mesoscale air quality models--limitations and strengths.” Atmospheric Environment, 32(8), 1455-1466. (85) Pope C.A., M.J. Thun, M.M. Namboodiri, D.W. Dockery, J.S. Evans, F.E. Speizer, C.W. Health, 1995: “Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults.” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 151, 669-674. (86) Pope C. A., R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito, G. D. Thurston, 2002: “Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution.” The Journal of the American Medical Association 287 ( 9), 1132-1141. (87) Pun B.K, C. Seigneur, 2001: “Sensitivity of particulate matter nitrate formation to precursor emissions in the California San Joaquin Valley.” Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 2979-2987. (88) Reid N., P.K. Misra, M. Amman, J. Hales, 2007: “Air Quality Modeling for Policy Development.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 70, 295–310. (89) Roberts P.T., and S.K. Friedlander, 1975: “Conversion of SO2 to sulfur particulate in the Los Angles atmosphere.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 10, 103-108. (90) Salvi S., S.T. Holgate, 1999: “Mechanisms of particulate matter toxicity.” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 20, 1187-1194. (91) Samet J. M., F. Dominici, F. C. Currero, I. Coursac, S. L. Zeger, 2000: “Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S. cities, 1987-1994.” The New England Journal of Medicine 343, 1742-1749. (92) Samoli E., A. Analitis, G. Touloumi, J. Schwartz, H.R. Anderson, J. Sunyer, L. Bisanti, D. Zmirou, J.M. Vonk, K. Pekkanen, P. Goodman, A. Paldy, C. Schindler, K. Katsouyanni, 2005: “Estimating the exposure-response relationships between particulate matter and mortality within the APHEA multicity project.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 113 (1), 88-95. (93) Scire J.S., D.G. Strimaitis, R.J. Yamartino, 2000: “A user''s guide for the CALPUFF dispersion model.” Earth Technology, Inc. 521 pp. (94) Scire J.S., F.W. Lurmann, A. Bass, S.R. Hanna, 1984: “User’s guide to the MESOPUFF II model and related processor programs.” EPA-600-S-8-84-013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. (95) Seibert P., and A. Frank, 2004: “Source-receptor matrix calculation with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model in backward mode.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 4, 51–63. (96) Scott B.C., 1982: “Theoretical estimates of the scavenging coefficient for soluble aerosol particles as a function of precipitation type, rate and altitude.” Atmospheric Environment, 17 (7), 1753-1762. (97) Seibert, P., F. Beyrich, S.-E. Gryning, S. Joffre, A. Rasmussen, P. Tercier, 2000: “Review and intercomparison of operational methods for the determination of the mixing height.” Atmospheric Environment 34, 1001-1027. (98) Seinfeld, John H., and S. N. Pandis, 1998: “Atmospheric chemistry and physics: From air pollution to climate change.” John Wiley, New York, 1326 pp. (99) Shan W., Y. Yin, H. Lu, S. Liang, 2009: “A meteorological analysis of ozone episodes using HYSPLIT model and surface data.” Atmospheric Research, 93 (4), 767-776. (100) Spichtinger N., M. Wening, P. James, T. Wagner, U. Platt, A. Stohl, 2001: “Satellite detection of a continental-scale plume of nitrogen oxides from boreal forest fires.” Geophysics Research Letter, 28, 4579-4582. (101) Stedman J. R., 2002: “The use of receptor modelling and emission inventory data to explain the downward trend in UK PM10 concentrations.” Atmospheric Environment, 36 (25), 4089-4101. (102) Stedmane J.R., Kent A.J., Grice S., Bush T.J., Derwent R.G., 2007: “A consistent method for modelling PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations across the United Kingdom in 2004 for air quality assessment.” Atmospheric Environment, 41 (1), 161-172. (103) Stelson A.W., and J.H. Seinfeld, 1982: “Relative humidity and temperature dependence of the ammonium nitrate dissociation constant.” Atmospheric Environment, 16 (5), 983-992. (104) Stockwell W.R., and Clavert J.G., 1983: “The mechanism of the HO-SO2 reaction.” Atmospheric Environment, 17 (11), 2231-2235. (105) Stockwell W.R., 1994: “The effect of gas-phase chemistry on aqueous-phase sulfur dioxide oxidation rates.” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 19 (3), 317-329. (106) Stockwell W.R., M. Lüken, J. Lewis, 2000a: “Modeling the formation of ammonium nitrate particles with the regional atmospheric chemistry mechanism.” CMD Annual report. (107) Stockwell W.R., J.G. Watson, N.F. Robinson, W. Steiner, W.W. Stylte, 2000b: “The ammonium nitrate particle equivalent of NOx emissions for wintertine conditions in Central California’s San Joaquin Valley.” Atmospheric Environment, 34 (27), 4711-4717. (108) Suh K.S., M.H. Han, S.H. Jung, C.W. Lee, 2008: “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of pollutant transport at local-scale complex terrain.” Annals of Nuclear Energy, 35, 1016-1023. (109) Tayanc M., A. Bercin, 2007: “SO2 modeling in İzmit Gulf, Turkey during the winter of 1997: 3 cases.” Environ Model Assess, 12, 119–129. (110) Tesche T.W., R. Morris, G. Tonnesen, D. McNally, J. Boylan, P. Brewer, 2006: “CMAQ/CAMx annual 2002 performance evaluation over the eastern US.” Atmospheric Environment, 40 (26), 4906-4919. (111) Thesing K.B., R. Huntley, 2001: “Open Burning and Construction Activities: Improved PM Fine Emission Estimation Techniques in the National Emissions Inventory”, http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/conference/ei10, U.S. EPA 10th Annual Emissions Inventory Conference, Denver CO. (112) Tollefson J., 2007: “Countries with highest CO2-emitting power sectors.” Nature, 450, pp. 327. (113) Tsai Y. I., 2005. Atmospheric visibility trends in an urban area in Taiwan 1961–2003. Atmospheric Environment 39 (30), 5555–5567. (114) Tsai Y.I., and M.T. Cheng, 2004: “Characterization of chemical species in atmospheric aerosols in a metropolitan basin.” Chemosphere, 54 (8), 1171-1181. (115) Tsai Y.I., and C.L. Chen, 2006: “Atmospheric aerosol composition and source apportionments to aerosol in southern Taiwan.” Atmospheric Environment, 40 (25), 4751-4763. (116) Tsai J. L., and B.J. Tsuang, 2005: “Aerodynamic roughness over an urban area and over two farmlands in a populated area as determined by wind profiles and surface energy flux measurements.” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 132 (1-2), 154-170. (117) Tsuang B. J., 2003: “Quantification on the source/receptor relationship of primary pollutants and secondary aerosols by a Gaussian plume trajectory model: Part I–theory.” Atmospheric Environment, 37 (28), 3981–3991. (118) Tsuang B. J., and C.Y. Tu, 2002: “Model structure and land parameter identification: An inverse problem approach.” Journal of Geophysical Research, 107 (D10), doi: 10.1029/2001JD000711. (119) Tsuang B. J., C.L. Chen, C.H. Lin, M.T. Cheng, Y.I. Tsai, C.P. Chio, R.C. Pan, P.H. Kuo, 2003a: “Quantification on the source/receptor relationship of primary pollutants and secondary aerosols by a Gaussian plume trajectory model: Part II. Case study.” Atmospheric Environment, 37 (28), 3993–4006. (120) Tsuang B. J., C.T. Lee, M.T. Cheng, N.H. Lin, Y.C. Lin, C.L. Chen, C.M. Peng, P.H. Kuo, 2003b: “Quantification on the source/receptor relationship of primary pollutants and secondary aerosols by a Gaussian plume trajectory model: Part III–Asian dust-storm periods.” Atmospheric Environment, 37 (28), 4007–4017. (121) Tseng K.H., J.L. Wang, P.H. Kuo, B.J. Tsuang, 2009: “Using a photochemical index to discuss the ozone formation and estimate hydroxyl concentration at downwind area.” Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 9 (4), 441-452. (122) Unger N., D. T. Shindell, D. M. Koch, D. G. Streets, 2006: “Cross influences of ozone and sulfate precursor emissions changes on air quality and climate” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103 (12), 4377-4380. (123) Wang L., D.B. Parker, C.B. Parnell, R.E. Lacey, B. W. Shaw, 2006: “Comparison of CALPUFF and ISCST3 models for predicting downwind odor and source emission rates.” Atmospheric Environment, 40 (25), 4663-4669. (124) Warren R. F., H. M. ApSimon, 2000: “The role of secondary particulates in European emission abatement strategies.” Integrated Assessment 1, 63–86. (125) White, F.M.,1991: “Viscous Fluid Flow. In: McGraw-Hill, New York (1991),” pp. 611. (126) White, A. B., C.J. Senff, A. N. Keane, L. S. Darby, I. V. Djalalova, D. C. Ruffieux, D. E. White, B. J. Williams, A. H. Goldstein, 2006: “A wind profiler trajectory tool for air quality transport applications.” Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D23S23. (127) Wotawa G., and M. Trainer, 2000: “The influence of Canadian forest fires on pollutant concentrations in the United States.” Science, 288, 324-328. (128) Yao X., C.K. Chan, M. Fang, S. Cadle, T. Chan, P. Mulawa, K. He and B. Ye, 2002: “The water-soluble ionic composition of PM2.5 in Shanghai and Beijing, China.” Atmospheric Environment, 36 (26), 4223-4234. (129) Yang K. L., 2002: “Spatial and seasonal variation of PM10 mass concentrations in Taiwan.” Atmospheric Environment, 36 (21), 3403–3411. (130) Zhang Y., P. Liu, A. Queen, C. Misenis, B. Pun, C. Seigneur, S. Y. Wu, 2006: “A comprehensive performance evaluation of MM5-CMAQ for the Summer 1999 Southern Oxidants Study episode—Part II: Gas and aerosol predictions.” Atmospheric Environment, 40 (26), 4839-4855. (131) Zhang Y., Y. Sunwoo, V. Kotamarthi, G.R. Carmichamel, 1994: “Photochemical oxidant processes in the presence of dust: An evaluation of the impact of dust on particulate nitrate and ozone formation.” Journal of Applied Meteorology, 33 (7), 813-824. (132) 郭奕伶，吳義林，張能復，1996: 「高屏地區衍生性硝酸鹽與硫酸鹽之形成速率」，第十三屆空氣污染控制技術研討會論文集，台北，第81-88頁。|
在模式污染物計算程序上，本研究考量CALPUFF之氣膠生成速率機制，以取代原本固定的硫酸鹽及硝酸鹽氣膠的生成速率。此項結果顯示，選用考量CALPUFF機制的結果有助於改善對硫酸鹽及硝酸鹽的模擬，其二氧化硫轉換為硫酸鹽的轉換速率為0.9 – 1.8 S % h-1，氮氧化物轉換為硝酸鹽的轉換速率為 2.0 - 13.0 N % h-1，此速率與其他研究結果相似。
In 1995, Taiwan's Environmental Protection Administration (EPA/TW) instituted a policy of levying emission taxes on polluters in order to combat the rampant national issue of pollution. Since that time, pollution control strategies, tightening exhaust emission standards for industry, improvements in fuel quality, and new stricter vehicle emission standards etc., have been implemented. For examining the effectiveness of these control strategies using an air quality model, this study revises Gaussian trajectory transfer-coefficient modeling system (GTx) on terrain treatments and aerosol formations, to improve the ability of the model. Then, the years from 1996 to 2002 are selected as studying periods to examine the variation of Taiwan's air quality and evaluate the effectiveness of these pollution control strategies using the revised model. The different terrain treatments are considered in the trajectory procedure in the model to determine the optimal mechanism in complex terrains. In addition, optimized parameters in the trajectory procedure determined from Genetic Algorithm (GA) were used for modeling scenarios. The result shows that the trajectories predicted from “Opt” scenarios (using optimized parameters, ridge and the tethered-sonde meteorological data, and considering the impact of mountains on horizontal and vertical wind velocity) improved the air quality simulation with better correlations. However, more efforts are needed to solve the underestimation in mountain areas, especially in high-polluted episode days. The formation rates of sulfate and nitrate aerosols in the pollutant procedure in the model are modified from constant values to be varied according to a function of solar radiation, relative humidity, ozone concentration, and NOx concentration. The result shows that new mechanisms, based on mechanisms used in CALPUFF, improved the performance of the model. The simulation from new mechanisms results in better correlation coefficients and lower biases. The calculated conversion rates are 0.9 - 1.8 S % h-1 for SO2 to sulfate aerosols; 2.0 - 13.0 N % h-1 for NOx to nitrate aerosols. These rates are closer to other researches. Finally, a detailed analysis of change in the concentrations of pollutants (SO2, NOx and particulate matter [PM]) between two three-year periods (from 1996 to1998 (P1) and from 2000 to 2002 (P2)) was conducted. The pollution levels were generally lower in the latter period. Concentrations at 14 EPA/TW stations in central Taiwan were simulated and source apportionment analyses in three of Central Taiwan''s largest cities were conducted using a trajectory transfer-coefficient air quality model. The sulfur control policy greatly reduced SO2 concentration island-wide, a stringent emission standard put into place for gasoline vehicles reduced NOx concentration along highways, and an emissions tax placed on construction sites, as well as a regular program for road-dust sweeping, reduced primary particulate matter. Among all of the pollution abatement policies implemented, the most effective method for reducing PM2.5 concentrations in the three largest cities involved the reduction of fine ammonium sulfate aerosols from point sources (56%-63% of net PM2.5 reduction). The next largest reduction was attributed to a dimishment in primary PM2.5 emanating from point sources (27%-56% of net PM2.5 reduction). Secondary particulate matter, especially sulfate, was reduced from distances up to 150 km leeward of major pollution point sources such as Taichung Power Plant.
在 DSpace 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。