請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5637
標題: 比較索氏萃取法與超臨界萃取法對含naphthalene及五氯酚土壤萃取之研究
作者: 葉玉雯
Y.W.Yeh
關鍵字: Soxhlet extraction
索氏萃取法
supercritical fluid extraction
naphthalene
pentachlorophenol
超臨界萃取法

五氯酚
出版社: 環境工程學系
摘要: 本研究之主要目的是以索氏萃取法及超臨界萃取法萃取土壤中的naphthalene及五氯酚,將其萃取結果加以比較,並在萃取土壤中naphthalene的部份,再加以密閉式微波萃取法以比較三者之萃取效率。索氏萃取法為較傳統之萃取方法,其發展較久且萃取方法較完備,萃取效果也佳,但因為其有萃取時間長以及有機溶劑使用量大,並且對環境易造成二次污染等缺點,較為大眾所詬病。於本研究中選擇以超臨界萃取法來與索氏萃取法相比較,探討二者萃取土壤中有機物之優缺點。超臨界萃取法是近年來較為新興之萃取技術,是以超臨界流體代替傳統的有機溶劑來做為萃取溶劑,除了可降低對環境的衝擊外,其對某些有機物的萃取效果亦相當良好。本研究中萃取土壤中的naphthalene時,若土壤為含水量極少的風乾土,密閉式微波萃取法與超臨界萃取法的萃取效果可達到80 %左右,索氏萃取法萃取效率可達90 %以上,萃取效果皆良好。但若土樣為含水率60 %的土壤時,超臨界萃取法的萃取效果會大幅受到影響,萃取效率會降至15 %左右。而在以超臨界萃取法萃取含有機碳量較少的土壤時,萃取效果較含碳量高的土壤好。對於索氏萃取法以及微波萃取法而言,土壤含水量60 %以及含碳量的不同對萃取效率的影響並不明顯。在萃取土壤中五氯酚時,因為土壤對五氯酚的吸附力強,因此索氏萃取法以及超臨界萃取法對其萃取效果都不佳。若將土壤酸化後萃取,超臨界萃取法的萃取效果有明顯的改善,但以索氏萃取法萃取酸化後土壤,於分析時圖譜中出現干擾的現象,以致未能做有效的定量。
This study focused on the comparison of the extraction efficiency from soils by Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The target compounds used in this study were naphthalene and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The micro-assisted extraction (MAE) method to extract naphthalene from soils was also used in comparison with Soxhlet extraction and SFE. Soxhlet extraction was a traditional extraction method which has developed for nearly a century and its extraction efficiency has been well documented. However, the Soxhlet extracted method requires a long extraction time and a lot of organic solvent which caused the secondary pollution problem environment. In this study, the SFE technique which used the supercritical fluid instead of organic solvent has been chosen to compare its extraction efficiency with that of Soxhlet extraction. Not only the SFE method reduced the waste of organic solvent to the environment, but also had a better efficiency of the extraction. Comparison of the extraction efficiency of naphthalene from the air-dried soils between Soxhlet, SFE and MAE, the result showed that the efficiency of Soxhlet extraction was above 90 %, that was better then the efficiencies of SFE and MAE which were about 80 %. When the organic contents of soil were different, the lower organic content made higher efficiency of SFE. In the result of Soxhlet extraction and MAE, the water content and organic content in soil made unobvious effect by these two methods. To extract PCP from soils was difficult, because PCP does not easily desorb from soil. The results indicated acidification of soils improved the PCP extraction efficiency by SFE.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5637
顯示於類別:環境工程學系所

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