請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5644
標題: 南投縣國中小學飲用水水質問題剖析
Problem analysis of drinking water quality in elementary and middle schools of Nantou County
作者: 陳綱建
Chen, Gang-Jian
關鍵字: drinking water management
飲用水管理
school drinking water
water quality
學校飲用水
水質
出版社: 環境工程學系所
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摘要: 本研究目的探討南投縣各國中小學飲用水水質管理現況:瞭解各校飲用水設備、各校飲用水管理人員之飲用水管理專業認知及對上級機關後援資源之感受情形、瞭解各校飲用水管理人員第一線管理上所遭遇窒礙難行之處,以作為日後學校飲用水水質管理工作之品質改進之參考。 此次研究以南投縣各國民中小學為研究對象,共寄發問卷183份,中學回收72.7%,小學回收73.2%,平均回收率達73%。 本研究發現南投縣內國中小學有56%比例的學校使用非自來水,除了17.2%無自來水可用,其餘38.8%皆謹守不飲用、食用原則。建議應以自來水為唯一飲用水源,若自來水無法到達之學校,則應編足經費購買瓶裝水或蒸餾水。南投縣內有18.2%國中小之老舊校舍普遍存在著管線老舊、位置不明、設計不良等問題,使得飲用水管理人對於學校用水設備現況掌握度不夠,增加用水危安事件發生的機率。 有80.6%的國中小飲用水管理人對於南投縣政府對於各校飲用水管理上的重視度及支援表示足夠,但在經費的補助上普遍覺得不足,包含設備新購、維護保養等,尤其1500人以下之中小型學校的經費更為不足,其維護的人力也不足。各國中小飲用水設備當中以RO逆滲透的採用為最多,佔56.0%,但此種設備的維護及耗材更換所費不眥,而飲用水設備需要定期維護、更換耗材才能發揮效用,在如此經費有限的情形下,建議改成過濾及煮沸。 南投縣各國中小有79.9%之飲用水管理人表示在管理工作推行上遭遇窒礙難行之問題,其中41.0%學校有「人力不足」問題,其次29.1%有「經費不足」問題、18.7%有「假日時外人進入校園破壞用水設備」問題、17.9%有「老舊校舍舊有用水設備問題很多」問題、15.7%有「學校附近或地下有潛在的汙染源」問題等。而無自來水學校中有24%的水源常常出問題,如冬季枯水期缺水、夏季颱風毀損設備管線,且非自來水的安全性無法得到保障,建議南投縣政府應對此類型學校做通盤性的輔導與改進。 為確保南投縣各國中小飲用水之安全,除了南投縣政府加強給予學校足夠之各項支援外,建議可將飲用水管理納入各校之校務評鑑項目,以督促各校能夠確實落實各項飲用水管理工作之執行。
The aim of this research was to study the status of drinking water quality management in elementary and middle schools of Nantou County, including: • Understanding the drinking water facilities at each school; • Finding out the administration staff's professional cognitive in drinking water management and how they feel about the backup support and resource provided by the higher level authorities; and • Understanding the obstacles experienced by the drinking water management staff in the first-line management. Based on the study results, this research would provide recommendation on how to improve the quality of drinking water management for each school in the future. This research took all elementary and middle schools in Nantou County as study subjects. A total number of 183 questionnaires were sent to all the schools. The recovery rates were 72.7% and 73.2% for middle schools and elementary schools respectively, achieving an average recovery rate of 73%. The research discovered that amongst the middle schools and elementary schools in Nantou County, 56% of the schools were using none tap water. 17.2% of the schools did not have access to tap water. 38.8% of the schools did not use none tap water for drinking.. In addition, it was recommended that tap water should be used as the only source of drinking water. For schools where there was no access to tap water, adequate funding should be budgeted for the procurement of bottled water or distilled water. There existed many issues such as old pipelines, pipeline locations unknown, poor pipeline design, and so on in many old school buildings and premises within 18.2% of the schools of Nantou County. Due to these issues, the drinking water management staff did not have enough understanding on the status of school's water facilities. Consequently, this increased the likelihood of water hazards incidents occurring. 80.6% of the administration staff's professional cognitive in drinking water management indicated that there were enough support and emphasis on the drinking water management in the school from the Nantou County government. However, these schools felt that the funding was usually not enough in the areas of new equipments procurement or facility maintenance and service. The inadequacy of funding and shortage of maintenance staff were more evident in small to medium schools where the total population was under 1500. In terms of drinking water facilities, the majority of the schools used Reverse Osmosis, which accounted for 56.7%. The cost to maintain a Reverse Osmosis drinking water facility and to replace the consumables was very high. In addition, the drinking water facility required to be maintained and the consumables replaced on a periodically basis in order to operate effectively. Therefore, considering the limited funding constraint, it was recommended to replace the Reverse Osmosis drinking water facility to a more economical one.Like boiled-water type and filtered -water type. 79.9% of the administration indicated that there are problems they could not solve on the implementation of drinking water management. The major problem was “shortage of human resources”( 41.0%), followed by: • Shortage of Funding(29.1%); • Drinking water facility sabotaged by outsiders who entered the school premises during school holiday(18.7%); • There were a lot of existing problems inherited from the old school buildings and premises(17.9%); and • There was potential source of contamination near the schools or underground. (15.7%) In terms of 24% of the schools that did not have access to tap water, there were often problems with the water source. For example, water shortage during dry seasons in winter or equipments and pipelines damaged by typhoons in summary. Moreover, there was no guarantee in the safety of none tap water. It was recommended that the Nantou County Government should provide guidance to improve the overall drinking water facilities in this type of schools.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5644
其他識別: U0005-1205200923555400
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1205200923555400
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