請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5663
標題: 焚化廢氣中污染物之探討
The study of incineration pollutants in flue gas
作者: 歐文毓
Ou, Wen-Yu
關鍵字: incineration
焚化
pollutants
heavy metal
acid gas
organic
simulation
thermodynamic equilibrium model
ASPEN PLUS
污染物
重金屬
酸性氣體
有機物
模擬
熱力平衡模式
出版社: 環境工程學系
摘要: 焚化處理是目前處理廢棄物的良好方法之一,不但減容效果好、並使有機物因燃燒而轉換成無害的二氧化碳、水蒸氣及無機物,病原性生物也在高溫下死滅殆盡,且處理過程產生的熱量亦可利用熱交換將熱量回收發電使用等優點,但如果焚化系統設計或操作不當,不僅不能達到處理的目的,反而會造成高濃度有害污染物的排放,造成環境的污染及危害人體健康。焚化過程中可能產生的污染物主要包括有重金屬、酸性氣體及有機污染物,大部分的重金屬及其鹽類在焚化爐中會與氧或氯結合而形成氧化物與氯化物;而廢棄物中所含之氯、硫、氮化物在焚化過程中會與氫、氧等元素反應生成氯化氫、硫酸及硝酸等酸性氣體,其生成量與操作溫度、垃圾組成及所採用之排氣控制設備有關。有機污染物主要包括苯、甲苯、四氯化碳、氯仿等揮發性有機物,與酚、鄰苯二甲酸的衍生物等半揮發性有機物,而戴奧辛及夫喃系列化合物的排放更引起大眾的爭議。 為降低污染物的產生,我們必須清楚了解在各不同操作條件下所可能產生的污染物種。過去甚少有學者對此做深入的探討,因此,本研究將藉由套裝軟體ASPEN PLUS及熱力平衡模式來模擬各種焚化操作條件下,污染物種的生成趨勢。並藉由實驗室規模之焚化爐,模擬焚化廢氣,並進行分析與實驗。 本實驗採用實驗廠規模(Pilot Scale)的流體化床焚化爐。都市廢棄物則以人工模擬進料模擬之,其中重金屬物質則選擇法令所管制的鎘、鉛及鉻。操作條件為:一次室爐溫、二次室爐溫、含氯物種。而所分析的污染物項目為:SO2、NOx、HCl、PAHs、BTEX、粒狀污染物及重金屬化合物。 本研究除了希望了解焚化過程在不同操作條件下所產生的污染物質外,也試圖知道這些物質在不同的條件下之相互關係,以便選擇適合的污染控制設備,並達最佳的去除效率。
Incineration is one of the best disposal technology for municipal waste. It has the advantages of volume reduction and high toxicity reduction. The heat energy produced during the incineration could be also recovered for electric generation. However, inadequate design or operation could result in the emission of pollutants. The composition of waste is very complex. Many types of pollutants could be produced during incineration. The pollutants contain heavy metals, acid gas, and toxic organic compounds, which pose a grave threat to human health. Heavy metal compounds will react with oxygen or chlorine to from metal oxides or metal chlorides. The elements of chlorine, sulfur, and nitrogen contained in the waste or fuel will react with hydrogen or oxygen to generate acid gas, such as hydrogen chloride, vitriol, and aquafortis. The formation of these acid gas could be related to the operating temperature, waste composition, and the air pollution control devices. The toxic organic compounds include the volatile organic such as benzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and the semi volatile organic such as phenol. The emission of dioxin and fluorene also cause intensive public concern. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the pollutants generated from incineration. However the generation of pollutants and the relations between these pollutants under various incineration conditions were rarely studied. The study of the pollutants generated from incineration was then performed by applying ASPEN PLUS and thermodynamic equilibrium model. At the same time, the experiments were carried out to evaluate the potential pollutants emissed from the incineration of simulated municipal waste. The reactor for this experiment was an pilot scale fluid bed incinerator. The composition of municipal solid waste was modelled by factitiousness in which Cd, Pb and Cr regulated by law were selected as heavy metal substances. The operating conditions included the temperature of first combustion chamber, the temperature of secondary combustion chamber and the species of chlorides content. And the SO2, NOx, HCl, PAHs, BTEX, particulate and heavy metal compounds were the pollutants to be studied. The results obtained from present works, provide the information for understanding the pollutants emissed from the incineration and the relations between these pollutants under various incineration operating conditions.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/5663
顯示於類別:環境工程學系所

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