請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件：
Temporal Variations and Characterization of Elements in Ambient Aerosols in Taichung Urban Area
long range transport
|引用:||Al-Momani, I. F., A. S. Daradkeh, A. T. Haj-Hussein, Y. A. Yousef, Q. M. Jaradat and K. A. Momani, “Trace Elements in Daily Collected Aerosols in Al-Hashimya, Central Jordan,” Atmospheric Research, Vol. 73, No. 1-2, pp. 87-100 (2005). Balasubramanian, R. and W. B. Qian, “Characterization and Source Identification of Airborne Trace Metals in Singapore,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 6, No. 10, pp. 813-818 (2004). Bell, M. L., K. Ebisu, R. D. Peng, J. M. Samet and F. Dominici, “Hospital Admissions and Chemical Composition of Fine Particle Air Pollution,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 179, No. 12, pp. 1115-1120 (2009). Boman, J., M. J. Gatari, S. Janhäll, A. S. Shannigrahi and A. Wagner, “Elemental Content of PM2.5 Aerosol Particles Collected in Göteborg during the Göte-2005 Campaign in February 2005,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 9, No. 7, pp. 2597-2606 (2009). Cao, J. J., J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, F. Wu, Y. M. Han, Z. D. Jin, Z. X. Shen and Z. S. An, “Size-differentiated Source Profile for Fugitive Dust in the Chinese Loess Plateau,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, No. 10, pp. 2261-2275 (2008). Celis, J. E., J. R. Morales, C. A. Zaror and J. C. Inzunza, “A Study of the Particulate Matter PM10 Composition in the Atmosphere of Chillán, Chile,” Chemosphere, Vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 541-550 (2004). Chang, C. Y., C. F. Wang, D. T. Mui, M. T. Cheng and H. L. Chiang, “Characteristics of Elements in Waste Ashes from a Solid Waste Incinerator in Taiwan,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 165, No. 1-3, pp. 766-773 (2009). Chen, J., M. Tan, Y. Li, J. Zheng, Y. Zhang, Z. Shan, G. Zhang and Y. Li, “Characteristics of Trace Elements and Lead Isotope Ratios in PM2.5 from Four Sites in Shanghai,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 156, No. 1-3, pp. 36-43 (2008). Chen, L. C. and M. Lippmann, “Effects of Metals within Ambient Air Particulate Matter (PM) on Human Health,” Inhalation Toxicology, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 1-31 (2009). Cheng, M. T., C. L. Horng, Y. R. Su, L. K. Lin, Y. C. Lin and C. C. K. Chou, “Particulate Matter Characteristics during Agricultural Waste Burning in Taichung City, Taiwan,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 165, No. 1-3, pp. 187-192 (2009a). Cheng, M. T., W. C. Chou, C. P. Chio, S. C. Hsu, Y. R. Su, P. H. Kuo, B. J. Tsuang, S. H. Lin and C. C. K. Chou, “Compositions and Source Apportionments of Atmospheric Aerosol during Asian Dust Storm and Local Pollution in Central Taiwan,” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 155-173 (2008a). Cheng, M. T., C. P. Chio, C. Y. Huang, J. M. Chen, C. F. Wang and C. Y. Kuo, “Chemical Compositions of Fine Particulates Emitted from Oil-fired Boilers,” Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 355-362 (2008b). Cheng, M. T., Y. C. Lin, C. P. Chio, C. F. Wang and C. Y. Kuo, “Characteristics of Aerosols Collected in Central Taiwan during an Asian Dust Event in Spring 2000,” Chemosphere, Vol. 61, No. 10, pp. 1439-1450 (2005). Cheng, Y., S. C. Lee, J. Cao, K. F. Ho, J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson and C. H. Ao, “Elemental Composition of Airborne Aerosols at a Traffic Site and a Suburban Site in Hong Kong,” International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol. 36, No. 1-3, pp. 166-179 (2009b). Chio, C. P., M. T. Cheng and C. F. Wang, “Source Apportionment to PM10 in Different Air Quality Conditions for Taichung Urban and Coastal Areas, Taiwan,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 38, No. 39, pp. 6893-6905 (2004). Christian, T. J., R. J. Yokelson, B. Cárdenas, L. T. Molina, G. Engling and S. C. Hsu, “Trace Gas and Particle Emissions from Domestic and Industrial Biofuel Use and Garbage Burning in Central Mexico,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 10101-10152 (2009). Chuersuwan, N., S. Nimrat, S. Lekphet and T. Kerdkumrai, “Levels and Major Sources of PM2.5 and PM10 in Bangkok Metropolitan Region,” Environment International, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 671-677 (2008). Cohen, D. D., D. Garton, E. Stelcer, O. Hawas, T. Wang, S. Poon, J. Kim, B. C. Choi, S. N. Oh, H. J. Shin, M. Y. Ko and M. Uematsu, “Multielemental Analysis and Characterzation of Fine Aerosols at Several Key ACE-Asia Sites,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, D19S12, doi:10.1029/2003JD003569 (2004). Cozzi, E., G. Adami, P. Barbieri, E. Reisenhofer and M. Bovenzi, “Is PM10 Mass Measurement a Reliable Index for Air Quality Assessment? An Environmental Study in a Geographical Area of North-eastern Italy,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 144, No. 1-3, pp. 389-401 (2008). Dongarrà, G., E. Manno and D. Varrica, “Possible Markers of Traffic-related Emissions,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 154, No. 1-4, pp. 117-125 (2009). Dongarrà, G., E. Manno, D. Varrica and M. Vultaggio, “Mass Levels, Crustal Compoment and Trace Elements in PM10 in Palermo, Italy,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, No. 36, pp. 7977-7986 (2007). Draxler, R. R. and G. D. Rolph, HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model access via NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD (2003). Website: http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html. EC, European Commission, Ambient Air Pollution by As, Cd and Ni Compounds, Final Version, DG Environmental Working Group, Brussels, 315 pp (2000). Falta, T., A. Limbeck, G. Koellensperger and S. Hann, “Bioaccessibility of Selected Trace Metals in Urban PM2.5 and PM10 Samples: a Model Study,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 390, No. 4, pp. 1149-1157 (2008). Fang, G. C. and J. F. Lee, “Study of Atmospheric Particulates and Metallic Pollutants in Harbor and Traffic Areas in Central Taiwan,” Environmental Engineering Science, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 809-819 (2008). Fang, G. C., C. N. Chang, Y. S. Wu, M. H. Chen, T. T. Ho and S. H. Huang, “A Study of Metallic Elements at Suburban and Industrial Regions in Central Taiwan during 2002-2003,” Atmospheric Research, Vol. 70, No. 2, pp. 131-142 (2004). Fujimori, E., T. Kobayashi, M. Aoki, M. Sakaguchi, T. Saito, T. Fukai and H. Haragughi, “Annual Variations of the Elemental Concentrations of PM10 in Ambient Air of Nagoya City as Determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS,” Analytical Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 12, pp. 1359-1366 (2007). Fukai, T., T. Kobayashi, M. Sakaguchi, M. Aoki, T. Saito, E. Fujimori and H. Haraguchi, “Chemical Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Ambient Air of Nagoya, Japan, as Studied by the Multielement Determination with ICP-AES and ICP-MS,” Analytical Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 207-213 (2007). Furuta, N., A. Iijima, A. Kambe, K. Sakai and K. Sato, “Concentrations, Enrichment and Predominant Sources of Sb and other Trace Elements in Size Classified Airborne Particulate Matter Collected in Tokyo from 1995 to 2004,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 7, No. 12, pp. 1155-1161 (2005). Godoy, M. L. D. P., J. M. Godoy, L. A. Roldão, D. S. Soluri and R. A. Donagemma, “Coarse and Fine Aerosol Source Apportionment in Rio de Janeiro,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 43, No. 14, pp. 2366-2374 (2009). Gómez, D. R., M. F. Giné, A. C. S. Bellato and P. Smichoeski, “Antimony: a Traffic-related Element in the Atmosphere of Buenos Aires, Argentina,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 7, No. 12, pp. 1162-1168 (2005). Hagler, G. S. W., M. H. Bergin, L. G. Salmon, J. Z. Yu, E. C. H. Wan, M. Zhang, L. M. Zeng, C. S. Kiang, Y. H. Zhang and J. J. Schauer, “Local and Regional Anthropogenic Influence on PM2.5 Elements in Hong Kong,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, No. 28, pp. 5994-6004 (2007). Han, L., G. Zhuang, Y. Sun and Z. Wang, “Local and Non-local Sources of Airborne Particulate Pollution at Beijing-The Ratio of Mg/Al as an Element Tracer for Estimating the Contributions of Mineral Aerosols from Outside Beijing,” Science in China: Series B, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 1-12 (2005). Harrison, R. M., D. J. T. Smith and A. J. Kibble, “What is Responsible for the Carcinogenicity of PM2.5?,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 61, No. 10, pp. 799-805 (2004). Henry, R. C. and G. M. Hidy, “Multivarite Analysis of Particulate Sulfate and other Air Quality Variables by Principle Components-Part I: Annual Data from Los Angeles and New York,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 13, No. 11, pp. 1581-1596 (1979). Hopke, P. K., D. D. Cohen, B. A. Begum, S. K. Biswas, B. Ni, G. G. Pandit, M. Santoso, Y. S. Chung, P. Davy, A. Markwitz, S. Waheed, N. Siddique, F. L. Santos, P. C. B. Pabroa, M. C. S. Seneviratne, W. Wimolwattanapun, S. Bunprapob, T. B. Vuong, P. D. Hien and A. Markowicz, “Urban Air Quality in the Asian Region,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 404, No. 1, pp. 103-112 (2008). Horng, C. L. and M. T. Cheng, “Characterization of PM2.5 and Conversion Rate of Sulfur Dioxide to Sulfate in Inland Areas of Taiwan,” Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 175-182 (2008). Hsu, S. C., S. C. Liu, Y. T. Huang, C. C. K. Chou, C. S. C. Lung, T. H. Liu, J. Y. Tu and F. Tsai, “Long-range Southeastward Transport of Asian Biosmoke Pollution: Signature Detected by Aerosol Potassium in Northern Taiwan,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, D14301, doi:10.1029/2009JD011725 (2009). Hsu, S. C., S. C. Liu, Y. T. Huang, C. S. C. Lung, F. Tsai, J. Y. Tu and S. J. Kao, “A Criterion for Identifying Asian Dust Events Based on Al Concentration Data Collected from Northern Taiwan between 2002 and Early 2007,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, D18306, doi:10.1029/2007JD009574 (2008). Hsu, S. C., S. C. Liu, W. L. Jeng, C. C. K. Chou, R. T. Hsu, Y. T. Huang and Y. W. Chen, “Lead Isotope Ratios in Ambient Aerosols from Taipei, Taiwan: Identifying Long-range Transport of Airborne Pb from the Yangtze Delta,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, No. 28, pp. 5393-5404 (2006). Hsu, S. C., S. C. Liu, W. L. Jeng, F. J. Lin, Y. T. Huang, C. S. C. Lung, T. H. Liu and J. Y. Tu, “Variations of Cd/Pb and Zn/Pb Ratios in Taipei Aerosols Reflecting Long-range Transport or Local Pollution Emissions,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 347, No. 1-3, pp. 111-121 (2005). Hsu, S. C., S. C. Liu, C. Y. Lin, R. T. Hsu, Y. T. Huang and Y. W. Chen, “Metal Compositions of PM10 and PM2.5 Aerosols in Taipei during Spring, 2002,” Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 925-948 (2004). Hu, C. W., M. R. Chao, K. Y. Wu, G. P. Chang-Chien, W. J. Lee, L. W. Chang and W. S. Lee, “Characterization of Multiple Airborne Particulate Metals in the Surroundings of a Municipal Waste Incinerator in Taiwan,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, No. 20, pp. 2845-2852 (2003). Hueglin, C., R. Gehrig, U. Baltensperger, M. Gysel, C. Monn and H. Vonmont, “Chemical Characterisation of PM2.5, PM10 and Coarse Particles at Urban, near City and Rural Sites in Switzerland,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 637-651 (2005). IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Complete List of Agents Evaluated and Their Classification (2006). Website: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/ Classification/index.php. Iijima, A., K. Sato, Y. Fujitani, E. Fujimori, Y. Saito, K. Tanabe, T. Ohara, K. Kozawa and N. Furuta, “Clarification of the Predominant Emission Sources of Antimony in Airborne Particulate Matter and Estimation of Their Effects on the Atmosphere in Japan,” Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 122-132 (2009). Iijima, A., K. Sato, K. Yano, M. Kato, K. Kozawa and N. Furuta, “Emission Factor for Antimony in Brake Abrasion Dusts as One of the Major Atmospheric Antimony Sources,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 2937-2942 (2008). Iijima, A., K. Sato, K. Yano, H. Tago, M. Kato, H. Kimura and N. Furuta, “Particle Size and Composition Distribution Analysis of Automotive Brake Abrasion Dusts for the Evaluation of Antimony Sources of Airborne Particulate Matter,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, No. 23, pp. 4908-4919 (2007). Ito, K., N. Xue and G. Thurston, “Spatial Variation of PM2.5 Chemical Species and Source-apportioned Mass Concentrations in New York City,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 38, No. 31, pp. 5269-5282 (2004). Jayasekher, T., “Aerosols near by a Coal Fired Thermal Power Plant: Chemical Composition and Toxic Evaluation,” Chemosphere, Vol. 75, No. 11, pp. 70-75 (2009). Kang, C. M., Y. Sunwoo, H. S. Lee, B. W. Kang and S. K. Lee, “Atmospheric Concentrations of PM2.5 Trace Elements in the Seoul Urban Area of South Korea,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 432-439 (2004). Kim, K. H., C. H. Kang, C. J. Ma, J. H. Lee, K. C. Choi and Y. H. Youn, “Airborne Cadmium in Spring Season between Asian Dust and Non-Asian Dust Periods in Korea,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 623-631 (2008). Kim, K. H., G. H. Choi, C. H. Kang, J. H. Lee, J. Y. Kim, Y. H. Youn and S. R. Lee, “The Chemical Composition of Fine and Coarse Particles in Relation with the Asian Dust Events,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 753-765 (2003). Kuo, C. Y., J. Y. Wang, S. H. Chang and M. C. Chen, “Study of Metal Concentrations in the Environment near Diesel Transport Routes,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 43, No. 19, pp. 3070-3076 (2009). Kuo, C. Y., P. T. Chen, Y. C. Lin, C. Y. Lin, H. H. Chen and J. F. Shih, “Factors Affecting the Concentrations of PM10 in Central Taiwan,” Chemosphere, Vol. 70, No. 7, pp. 1273-1279 (2008). Kuo, C. Y., C. Y. Lin, W. F. Chiang, L. C. Ko, C. W. Wu and W. L. Shang, “Variations of Chemical Compositions in Coarse Aerosols and Fine Aerosols in Two Successive Episodes,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 25, No. 8, pp. 2059-2066 (2006). Kuo, S. C., L. Y. Hsieh, C. H. Tsai and Y. I. Tsai, “Characterization of PM2.5 Fugitive Metal in the Workplaces and the Surrounding Environment of a Secondary Aluminum Smelter,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, No. 32, pp. 6884-6900 (2007). Lee, J. H., P. K. Hopke and J. R. Turner, “Source Identification of Airborne PM2.5 at the St. Louis-midwest Supersite,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, D10S10, doi:10.1029/2005JD006329 (2006). Lenschow, P., H. J. Abraham, K. Kutzner, M. Lutz, J. D. Preuβ and W. Reichenbächer, “Some Ideas about the Sources of PM10,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, Suppl. 1, pp. S23-S33 (2001). Limbeck, A., M. Handler, C. Puls, J. Zbiral, H. Bauer and H. Puxbaum, “Impact of Mineral Components and Selected Trace Metals on Ambient PM10 Concentrations,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 530-538 (2009). Lin, C. C., S. J. Chen, K. L. Huang, W. I. Hwang, G. P. Chang-Chien and W. Y. Lin, “Characteristics of Metals in Nano/Ultrafine/Fine/Coarse Particles Collected beside a Heavily Trafficked Road,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, No. 21, pp. 8113-8122 (2005a). Lin, C. Y., S. C. Liu, C. C. K. Chou, S. J. Huang, C. M. Liu, C. H. Kuo and C. Y. Young, “Long-range Transport of Aerosols and Their Impact on the Air Quality of Taiwan,” Atmospheric Environment,” Vol. 39, No. 33, pp. 6066-6076 (2005b). Lippmann, M., K. Ito, J. S. Hwang, P. Maciejczyk and L. C. Chen, “Cardiovascular Effects of Nickel in Ambient Air,” Environmental Health Perspectives,” Vol. 114, No. 11, pp. 1662-1669 (2006). López, J. M., M. S. Callén, R. Murillo, T. García, M. V. Navarro, M. T. de la Cruz and A. M. Mastral, “Levels of Selected Metals in Ambient Air PM10 in an Urban Site of Zaragoza (Spain),” Environmental Research, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 58-67 (2005). Malm, W. C., B. A. Schichtel, M. L. Pitchford, L. L. Ashbaugh and R. A. Eldred, “Spatial and Monthly Trends in Speciated Fine Particle Concentration in the United States,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 109, No. D03306, doi:10.1029/2003JD003739 (2004). Månsson, N. S., D. S. T. Hjortenkrans, B. G. Bergbäck, L. Sörme and A. V. Häggerud, “Sources of Antimony in an Urban Area,” Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 160-169 (2009). Merešová, J., M. Florek, K. Holý, M. Ješkovský, I. Sýkora, M. V. Frontasyeva, S. S. Pavlov and M. Bujdoš, “Evaluation of Elemental Content in Air-borne Particulate Matter in Low-level Atmosphere of Bratislava,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, No. 34, pp. 8079-8085 (2008). Millero, F. J., R. Feistel, D. G. Wright and T. J. McDougallm, “The Composition of Standard Seawater and the Definition of the Reference-composition Salinity Scale,” Deep Sea Research: Part I, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 50-72 (2008). Moreno, T., X. Querol, J. Pey, M. C. Minguillón, N. Pérez, A. Alastuey, R. M. Bernabé, S. Blanco, B. Cárdenas, W. Eichinger, A. Salcido and W. Gibbons, “Spatial and Temporal Variations in Inhalable CuZnPb Aerosols within the Mexico City Pollution Plume,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 370-378 (2008). Moreno, T., A. Alastuey, X. Querol, O. Font and W. Gibbons, “The Identification of Metallic Elements in Airborne Particulate Matter Derived from Fossil Fuels at Puertollano, Spain,” International Journal of Coal Geology, Vol. 71, No. 2-3, pp. 122-128 (2007). Moreno, T., X. Querol, A. Alastuey, M. Viana, P. Salvador, A. S. de la Campa, B. Artiñano, J. de la Rosa and W. Gibbons, “Variations in Atmospheric PM Trace Metal Content in Spanish Towns: Illustrating the Chemical Complexity of the Inorganic Urban Aerosol Cocktail,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, No. 35, pp. 6791-6803 (2006). Mouli, P. C., S. V. Mohan, V. Balaram, M. P. Kumar and S. J. Reddy, “A Study on Trace Elemental Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols at a Semi-arid Urban Site Using ICP-MS Technique,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 136-146 (2006). Nishikawa, M., Q. Hao and M. Morita, “Preparation and Evaluation of Certified Reference Materials for Asian Mineral Dust,” Global Environmental Research, Vol. 4, No.1, pp. 103-113 (2000). Okuda, T., M. Katsuno, D. Naoi, S. Nakao, S. Tanaka, K. He, Y. Ma, Y. Lei and Y. Jia, “Trends in Hazardous Trace Metal Concentrations in Aerosols Collected in Beijing, China from 2001 to 2006,” Chemosphere, Vol. 72, No. 6, pp. 917-924 (2008). Park, K. and H. D. Dam, “Characterization of Metal Aerosols in PM10 from Urban, Industrial, and Asian Dust Sources,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, doi: 10.1007/s10661-008 -0695-6 (2009). (In press) Pérez, N., J. Pey, X. Querol, A. Alastuey, J. M. López and M. Viana, “Partitioning of Major and Trace Components in PM10-PM2.5-PM1 at an Urban Site in Southern Europe,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1677-1691 (2008). Perrino, C., S. Canepari, E. Cardarelli, M. Catrambone and T. Sargolini, “Inorganic Constituents of Urban Air Pollution in the Lazio Region (Central Italy),” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 136, No. 1-3, pp. 69-86 (2008). Querol, X., M. Viana, A. Alastuey, F. Amato, T. Moreno, S. Castillo, J. Pey, J. de la Rosa, A. Sánchez de la Campa, B. Artíñano, P. Salvador, S. García Dos Santos, R. Fernández-Patier, S. Moreno-Grau, L. Negral, M. C. Minguillón, E. Monfort, J. I. Gil, A. Inza, L. A. Ortega, J. M. Santamaría and J. Zabalza, “Source Origin of Trace Elements in PM from Regional Background, Urban and Industrial Sites of Spain,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 41, No. 34, pp. 7219-7231 (2007). Quiroz, W., I. D. Gregori, P. Basilio, M. Bravo, M. Pinto and M. G. Lobos, “Heavy Weight Vehicle Traffic and its Relationship with Antimony Content in Human Blood,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 11, No. 5, pp. 1051-1055 (2009). Rahn, K. A., “A Graphical Technique for Determining Major Components in a Mixed Aerosol. I. Descriptive Aspects,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 33, No. 9, pp. 1441-1455 (1999). Saldarriagu-Noreña, H., L. Hernández-Mena, M. Ramírez-Muñiz, P. Carbajal-Romero, R. Coíso-Ramírez and B. Esquivel-Hernáadez, “Characterization of Trace Metals of Risk to Human Health in Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5) at Two Sites in Guadalajara, Mexico,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 887-894 (2009). Schaumann, F., P. J. A. Borm, A. Herbrich, J. Knoch, M. Pitz, R. P. F. Schins, B. Luettig, J. M. Hohlfeld, J. Heinrich and N. Krug, “Metal-rich Ambient Particles (Particulate Matter2.5) Cause Airway Inflammation in Healthy Subjects,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 170, No. 8, pp. 898-903 (2004). Senaratne, I. and D. Shooter, “Elemental Composition in Source Identification of Brown Haze in Auckland, New Zealand,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 38, No. 19, pp. 3049-3059 (2004). Smichowski, P., D. Gómez, C. Frazzoli and S. Caroli, “Traffic-related Elements in Airborne Particulate Matter,” Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 23-49 (2008). Sternbeck, J., Å. Sjödin and K. Andréasson, “Metal Emissions from Road Traffic and the Influence of Resuspension-Results from Two Tunnel Studies,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 36, No. 30, pp. 4735-4744 (2002). Sun, Y., G. Zhuang, A. Tang, Y. Wang and Z. An, “Chemical Characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 in Haze-fog Episodes in Beijing,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 3148-3155 (2006). Taylor, S. R., “Abundance of Chemical Elements in the Continental Crust: a New Table,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 28, No. 8, pp. 1273-1285 (1964). Thorpe, A. and R. M. Harrison, “Sources and Properities of Non-exhaust Particulate Matter from Road Traffic: a Review,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 400, No. 1-3, pp. 270-282 (2008). Thurston, G. D. and P. J. Lioy, “Receptor Modeling and Aerosol Transport,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 687-698 (1987). Tripathi, R. M., A. V. Kumar, S. T. Manikandan, S. Bhalke, T. N. Mahadevan and V. D. Puranik, “Vertical Distribution of Atmospheric Trace Metals and Their Sources at Mumbai, India,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 135-146 (2004). Tsai, J. H., K. H. Lin, C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Ding, C. G. Choa and H. L. Chiang, “Chemical Constituents in Particulate Emissions from an Integrated Iron and Steel Facility,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 147, No. 1-2, pp. 111-119 (2007). Tsai, Y. I. and M. T. Cheng, “Characterization of Chemical Species in Atmospheric Aerosols in a Metropolitan Basin,” Chemosphere, Vol. 54, No. 8, pp. 1171-1181 (2004). Tsunemi, K. and H. Wada, “Substance Flow Analysis of Antimony for Risk Assessment of Antimony and Antimony Compounds in Japan,” Journal of the Japan Instituye of Metals,” Vol. 72, No. 2, pp. 91-98 (2008). Uexküll, O. V., S. Skerfving, R. Doyle and M. Braungart, “Antimony in Brake Pads-a Carcinogenic Component?,” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 19-31 (2005). Voutsa, D., C. Samara, T. Kouimtzis and K. Ochsenkühn, “Elemental Composition of Airborne Particulate Matter in the Multi-impacted Urban Area of Thessaloniki, Greece,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 36, No. 28, pp. 4453-4462 (2002). Wåhlin, P., R. Berkowicz and F. Palmgren, “Characterization of Traffic-generated Particulate Matter in Copenhagen,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, No. 12, pp. 2151-2159 (2006). Wang, C. C., C. T. Lee, S. C. Liu and J. P. Chen, “Aerosol Characterization at Taiwan’s Northern Tip during Ace-Asia,” Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 839-855 (2004). Wang, C. F., C. Y. Chang, S. F. Tsai and H. L. Chiang, “Characteristics of Road Dust from Different Sampling Sites in Northern Taiwan,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 55, No. 8, pp. 1236-1244 (2005). Wang, X., T. Sato and B. Xing, “Size Distribution and Anthropogenic Sources Apportionment of Airborne Trace Metals in Kanazawa, Japan,” Chemosphere, Vol. 65, No. 11, pp. 2440-2448 (2006a). Wang, Y. F., Y. I. Tsai, H. H. Mi, H. H. Yang and Y. F. Chang, “PM10 Metal Distribution in an Industrialized City,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 77, No. 4, pp. 624-630 (2006b). Wang, Y. F., K. L. Huang, C. T. Li, H. H. Mi, J. H. Luo and P. J. Tsai, “Emissions of Fuel Metals Content from a Diesel Vehicle Engine,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, No. 33, pp. 4637-4643 (2003). Weckwerth, G., “Verification of Traffic Emitted Aerosol Components in the Ambient Air of Cologne (Germany),” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, No. 32, pp. 5525-5536 (2001). WHO, World Health Organization, Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, 2nd Ed., WHO regional publications, Copenhagen, 273 pp (2000). Wilson, J. G., S. Kingham, J. Pearce and A. P. Sturman, “A Review of Intraurban Variations in Particulate Air Pollution: Implications for Epidemiological Research,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 39, No. 34, pp. 6444-6462 (2005). Wu, Y., J. Hao, L. Fu, J. Hu, Z. Wang and U. Tang, “Chemical Characteristics of Airborne Particulate Matter near Major Roads and at Background Locations in Macao, China,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 317, No. 1-3, pp. 159-172 (2003). Xie, R., H. M. Seip, G. Wibetoe, S. Nori and C. W. McLeod, “Heavy Coal Combustion as the Dominant Source of Particulate Pollution in Taiyuan, China, Corroborated by High Concentrations of Arsenic and Selenium in PM10,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 370, No. 2-3, pp. 409-415 (2006). Yang, H. H., P. C. Chen, L. T. Hsieh, M. C. Lin and K. L. Huang, “Characteristics of Atmospheric Metals during Dry Monsoon Season in the Coastal Region of Western Taiwan,” Aerosol and Air Quality Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 29-39 (2003). Yatkin, S. and A. Bayram, “Elemental Composition and Sources of Particulate Matter in the Ambient Air of a Metropolitan City,” Atmospheric Research, Vol. 85, No. 1, pp. 126-139 (2007). Yuan, C. S., C. X. Hai and M. Zhao, “Source Profiles and Fingerprints of Fine and Coarse Sands Resurspended from the Soils Sampled in the Central Inner Mongolia,” Particuology, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 304-311 (2006). Zereini, F., F. Alt, J. Messerschmidt, C. Wiseman, I. Feldmann, A. V. Bohlen, J. Müller, K. Liebl and W. Püttmann, “Concentration and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Urban Airborne Particulate Matter in Frankfurt am Main, Germany,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, No. 9, pp. 2983-2989 (2005). 魏玉麟，鄭曼婷，王竹方，王鴻博，史文龍，劉源隆，魏黎明，王順德，黃玉梅， “台中發電廠煤塵逸散監測調查”，台電工程月刊，第六七七期，第一卷，pp. 75-95(2005)。 許美華，「應用CMB受體模式解析中台灣沿海與都會區空氣懸浮微粒污染來源」，碩士論文，國立中興大學環境工程學系，台中(2008)。 曾國書，「屏東都會區粗細懸浮微粒特性之研究」，碩士論文，國立屏東科技大學環境工程與科學系，屏東(2006)。 黃教信，「台北地區大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素之濃度、來源及通量研究」，碩士論文，國立台灣大學海洋研究所，台北(2004)。 陳志強，「汽油油品及引擎排放廢氣中金屬元素之特徵」，碩士論文，國立成功大學環境工程學系，台南(2002)。 鄭曼婷，王竹方，「台中市道路揚塵特性及減量評估」，台中市環境保護局期末報告(1998)。 行政院環境保護署，台灣空氣污染排放清冊資料庫，TEDS 6.1版(2007)。網站: http://www.ctci.com.tw/air-ei/new_main2-1.htm。|
|摘要:||本研究藉由在2007年1月至2008年6月期間在台中都會區進行大氣懸浮微粒PM2.5與PM2.5-10之採樣，利用感應耦合電漿質譜儀分析微粒中22種元素(Al、Fe、Na、Mg、K、Ca、Sr、Ba、Ti、Mn、Co、Ni、Cu、Zn、Mo、Cd、Sb、Pb、V、Cr、As及Se)的濃度，以瞭解懸浮微粒中元素的組成特性及污染來源。綜合研究結果顯示，利用富集因子區分源自地殼源之元素有Al、Fe、Mg、Ca、Ti與Sr，其主要分佈於PM2.5-10中，人為排放源元素有Zn、Pb、Mo、Cu、As、Cd與Se，則集中在PM2.5以下。夏季時期大氣PM2.5中Ni及V之含量均分別較東北季風期間顯著增加28 %與45 %，其與沿海地區及工廠設置密集區域排出污染物輸送至本地有關。另假日期間大氣PM2.5中Mo、Co及Fe的含量較非假日期間顯著減少31 %、27 %及22 %，與柴油重型交通工具在此期間內較無行駛有關。由主成分分析法解析台中都會區大氣懸浮微粒中元素的來源分別有塵土、交通源、重油燃燒、垃圾焚化及燃煤電廠的貢獻。此外，在高PM2.5污染事件日(PM2.5日均值濃度高於65 μg m-3)期間，無論PM2.5或PM2.5-10中22種分析元素之含量與非事件日期間相較均無顯著差異，顯示懸浮微粒中元素之組成及污染來源與非事件日期間並無變化。另沙塵過境期間沙塵氣團不僅挾帶地殼元素外，亦會輸送大量人為排放源元素至此地區，其中PM2.5及PM2.5-10中As、Cd及Se之含量同步較非沙塵暴事件日期間分別顯著增加104 ~ 124 %、55 ~ 73 %及69 ~ 90 %，而利用Mg/Al與Ca/Al之比值估算沙塵過境期間塵土經長程傳輸對台中都會區PM2.5-10與PM2.5之貢獻量分別約為65 %及13 %。|
In this study, atmospheric fine and coarse particulates were collected from January 2007 to June 2008 in Taichung urban area. The samples were further analyzed to determine the concentration of 22 elements (Al, Fe, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Sb, Pb, V, Cr, As and Se) by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the elemental compositions and sources of particulate matters. According to the analysis of enrichment factors, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti and Sr were originated from crustal sources which were mostly distributed in PM2.5-10, while the trace elements such as Zn, Pb, Mo, Cu, As, Cd and Se were derived from anthropogenic emission sources and were found mainly in PM2.5. The contents of Ni and V measured in summer were 28 % and 45 %, respectively, higher than those measured in the northeastern monsoon, suggesting they were contributed by local emission from industrial park located near coastal area. On the other hand, the contents of Mo, Co and Fe of PM2.5 measured during weekends were 31 %, 27 % and 22 %, respectively, less than those measured in weekdays. These three trace elements might be attributed from heavy duty cars which were usually not used during weekends. By employing the principle component analysis to determine the sources of the elements, the results indicated the sources of particulates in Taichung urban area were mineral dust, traffic emission, fuel oil-fired, municipal solid waste incinerator and coal-fired power plant. During the sampling period, seven Asian dust storm events and seven local PM2.5 episodes (PM2.5 daily mean concentration greater than 65 μg m-3) were identified. Our results further showed that the contents of 22 elements in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 between local PM2.5 episodes and normal days were not significantly different, indicating the elevated particulate concentrations were mainly contributed by photochemical reactions. During the Asian dust storm events, the long range transport brought not only crustal elements but also anthropogenic species, particularly the contents of As, Cd and Se increased 104 - 124 %, 55 - 73 % and 69 - 90 %, respectively. Furthermore, using the ratio of Mg/Al and Ca/Al to estimate the amount of transported dust and showed approximately 65 % of PM2.5-10 and 13 % of PM2.5 were attributed from the long range transport.
在 DSpace 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。